Hypertension and nephrology

[Administering single pill fixed combinations twice a day in the antihypertensive therapy]


JULY 05, 2022

Hypertension and nephrology - 2022;26(03)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.26.018

[Optimizing the antihypertensive therapy usually does not mean simplifying the therapy. Most current antihypertensive agents have a 24-hour effect according to the prescribing information, but are not able to provide adequate blood pressure control in many patients. Among treated HT patients, a higher proportion of non-dippers occur in those who take all their antihypertensives at the same time in the morning. The recent evidence suggests that better blood pressure lowering results can be achieved when ACEis or ARBs are administered in the evening and not in the morning. There is hardly any data and practically no evidence that single pill fixed combinations should be administered twice daily, either in the same form in the same or in different doses, or two different combined drugs.]


  1. SZTE SZAKK SZAOK Belgyógyászati Klinika, Szeged



Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[Evaluation of affective temperaments in healthy controls and in different hypertension phenotypes]


[Affective temperaments (depressive, anxious, irritable, hyperthymic and cyclothymic) are stable parts of personality and describe the emotional reactivity for external stimuli. Their relation to psychopathological conditions is obvious, and increasing amount of data is available in cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate affective temperaments in healthy subjects (Cont), in white-coat hypertensive (WhHT), in non-resistant (non-ResHT) and in resistant hypertensive (ResHT) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 363 patients were included: 82 Cont, 44 WhHT, 200 non-ResHT and 37 ResHT. The patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). In ResHT cyclothymic affective temperament points (4 [2.25–8]) were higher (p<0.05) compared with Cont (2 [0–5]) and with non-ResHT (3 [1–5]). Cyclothymic temperament points of WhHT (4 [2–7]) were also higher compared with Cont. ResHT was independently associated with cyclothymic scale equal or above 6 (Beta=2.59 [95% CI: 1.16–5.77]), irritable scale equal or above 7 (Beta=3.17 [95% CI: 1.3–7.69]) and anxious scale equal or above 9 (Beta=2.57 [95% CI: 1.08–6.13]) points. WhHT was also independently associated with cyclothymic scale equal or above 6 points (Beta= 2.378 [95% CI: 1.178–4.802]). In conclusions, white-coat and resistant hypertensive patients have specific affective temperament patterns, and their evaluation can help to understand the psychopathological background of these conditions.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Effect of hypertension and RAS-inhibitors to adult patients (over 18 years old) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection who were admitted to hospital]

FEJES Imola, RÓKA Richárd, PETŐ Zoltán, ÁBRAHÁM György, VÁRKONYI Tamás, LENGYEL Csaba, LÉGRÁDY Péter

[Our aim was to assess the prevalence of treated HT, the number of antihypertensive agents, especially ACE-inhibitors or ARBs among Covid-positive patients older than 18 years admitted to the Center for Disease Control of Department of Medicine of the University of Szeged. Data of 165 randomly selected patients (mean age 59.9±12.9 years, mean BMI 30.7±6.6 kg/m2) were analysed retrospectively. They were admitted between middle of February and end of April 2021. At the time of admission there were 103 (62.4% of all) HT patients (56 men, 47 women). The mean number of antihypertensive drugs were 1.6±1.6 pieces (max. 6) at the time of admission. 23 patients took more than 3 antihypertensives and 25 patients took exactly 3 drugs at home, and 20 patients had monotherapy. The antihypertensive therapy did not change in 74 cases, decreased in 6 cases and increased in 31 cases. In one case we could reduce therapy with 100%, monotherapy was finished, in the other 5 cases it was reduced by 50%. HT patients spent more days in hospital than non-HT patients (10.9±6.8 vs. 9.2±6.3). Spontaneous oxygen saturation (SatO2) was lower in HT patients compared to non-HTs at admission (89.6±9.7 vs. 92.6±4.8%) and patients who were on ARBs had the lowest SatO2 (87.5±8.5%, p=0.01 vs. non-HT). The total mortality rate was 8.7% in HT patients and it was just 1.6% in non-HT patients. 16.3% of HT patients with RAS-inhibitors and 13.0% without it required admission to the intensive care unit. The mortality rate was 10% of patients with RAS-inhibitors and 4.3% of them without it. This rate was 13% in patients with ARB and 8.8% with ACE-inhibitor. According to our results, HT may have higher risk for worse Covid-19 outcomes, including RAS-inhibitors also may have a higher risk.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Bottlenecks in primary aldosteronism care – focus on screening and biochemical diagnosis]


[ The primary (hyper) aldosteronism (PA) is a spectral disease forming a continuum from normotensive to cases that warrant adrenalectomy. PA definition is laden with inherent uncertainties. The main paradigm shift in the two new recommendations described below is that no change in medication is recommended before PA screening, to help broaden the scope of screenings. Both continue to be based on suppressed renin activity, but the serum aldosterone threshold has been lowered to increase sensitivity. With this algorithm, however, the proportion of positive screenings is significantly increased, creating another bottleneck, leading to congestion of patients referred to a specialist to perform an additional suppression test.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Renal dysfunction associated with polyarthritis]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Hypertension in Hungary: current situation and strategic proposals]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Hypertension, COPD and COVID-19. Focus on antihypertensive therapy]


[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very common comorbidity of hypertension and it is often unrecognised by physicians. The factors involved in the pathomechanism of both diseases should be realised when choosing treatment. Among factors, hypoxia, increased tone of sympathetic nervous system and activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system should primarily be considered. Vascular wall damage and endothelial dysfunction has an important role in both conditions. The goals of treatment are elimination of risk factors, optimizing the blood pressure, the consequential prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular, renal and pulmonary damage; finally prolonging the patients’ life and improving their quality of life as well. Both hypertension and COPD significantly worsen the condition of COVID-19 patients since they increase the severity of the disease and the rate of in-patients’ and their mortality. In the treatment of hypertension among COPD and COVID-19 patients there must be emphasized the medication inhibiting of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, such as angiotensin-converting en­zyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II AT1 re­cep­tor antagonists. Special attention concerned the beneficial effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. Other antihypertensive drugs (calcium channel blockers, thiazide-like diu­retics, high selectivity β1 receptor antagonists) may supplement the treatment if necessary. Long-acting β2 receptor agonists, muscarinic receptor antagonists and inhalation corticosteroids may be administered in double or triple combination also in hypertension and COPD as well. It is important to note, that statin therapy and also vitamin D3 improve the condition of COVID-19 patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Blood pressure variability and its clinical importance]


[The 24-hour and longer-term (weeks, months, years) as well as seasonal, regional variations and fluctuations of blood pressure have been known for long time in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. It is also well known and established that blood pressure variability is greater in patients with more severe hypertension and in the elderly population. In the last decade and actually, the variability of blood pressure has come into new light by meticulous analysis of numerous causal factors and consequences influencing its fluctuation. The real diagnostic and prognostic value of blood pressure variability and its role in the assessment of successful antihypertensive treatment have also been favoured. In our review, we summarise the physiological and pathophysiological principles of blood pressure variability, including also the significant importance of allostasis in the new approach. We overview the methods of measuring the blood pressure variability and its real importance related to the results obtained. We analyse the importance of non-adaptive levels of blood pressure variability in asymptomatic cases and apparent conditions, further in diagnostic projections and monitoring the treatment. Based on our own experience, we also present the future options of exploring the fluctuating blood pressure.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Monitoring of the blood pressure lowering effectiveness of ramipril-amlodipine fix combination – a non-interventional trial (RAMONA study)]


[Purpose: Monitoring the effectiveness and safety of the fix combination formulation Egiramlon® therapy containing ramipril and amlodipin in patients, suffering from mild or moderate hypertension despite antihypertensive treatment. Patients and methods: Open, prospective, phase IV clinical observational study, which involved 9169 patients (age >18) with mild or moderate hypertension [TUKEB No: 16927- 1/2012/EKU (294/PI/12.)]. Ramipril/Amlodipin 5/5, 5/10, 10/5, 10/10 mg combinations were administered/ titrated in three visits, during the four months period according to the physician’s decision Blood pressure was measured by validated blood pressure sphygmomanometry and ABPM (Meditech, Hungary). The dosis of the fix combination formulation was determined individually during the visits by the 923 doctors involved in the study. The target blood pressure value was 140/90 mmHg, but in case of high risk patients population (diagnosed cardiovascular disease, diabetes), 130/90 mmHg target value was determined. Results: In 70.1% of the patients had no protocoll deviation. Patients data and examination results were processed according to this 6423 patient population. The average age of the patients were 60.2 year, in 50-50% sex distribution. The average duration of the treated hypertension was 9.8 years and the average blood pressure value was 157/91 mmHg. Till the end of the study, systolic blood pressure has decreased with 26.4 mmHg and diastolic pressure with 11.8 mmHg. An average 5.5 bpm heart rate frequency decreasing was observed at the end of the study. As a result of the treatment 52.4% of the patient population has reached the target blood pressure value.]