Clinical Oncology

[Novelties in the management of Hodgkin lymphoma]

ILLÉS Árpád, MOLNÁR Zsuzsa, MILTÉNYI Zsófia

SEPTEMBER 15, 2016

Clinical Oncology - 2016;3(03)

[Hodgkin lymphoma is a lymphoproliferativ disease, it is about 12-18% of all lymphomas. It has typical morphologic, clinical and therapeutic features, which can distinguish from other lymphoma types. Due to risk- and PET/CT adapted treatment Hodgkin lymphoma is a curable lymphoma with an 80-90% long-term survival, however, refracter- and relapsed patients’ therapy is a great challange. Cure rate can increase due to the development of the diagnostic and treatment modalities, but the use of standard recommendation is necessary. The aim of this review is to show new WHO 2016 lymphoma classifi cation, role of the new diagnostic options, especially 18FDG-PET/CT, Lugano classifi cation and fi rst-line and salvage therapeutic possibilities and to introduce the immunotherapy, like brentuximab vedotin and PD1 inhibitors. Certain points of hemopoietic stem cell transplantation will be also covered.]

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[Obesity and cancer]

VALTINYI Dorottya

[The role of obesity in the development of cancer is well-known from ages. However, these days we witness the explosion-like increase of obesity, globally, but mainly in the economically advanced population, and, which is even more alarming, among youngsters. The prognosis of the obesity-related cancer is rather poor, therefore, the prevention, including the screening, have outstanding importance. Unfortunately, the participation of the obes persons, especially obes women, in these programs is very low. The diagnostics and therapies should consider the special features of obesity, which are related to the magnitude, distribution, composition of fatty tissue connected to the changes in pharmacokinetics. Moreover, the problems might be complicated with obesity-associated non-tumorous severe diseases (e.g. cardiovascular, diabetes type 2).This review covers different aspects of obesity-cancer relationships, with an emphasis on everyday oncology.]

Clinical Oncology

[Biomarkers - today and tomorrow]

KOPPER László

[Biomarkers (tumor markers in oncology) are able to make exact, objective and reproducible distinction between two groups. Biomarkers can serve different purposes, as to estimate the patient’s survival without treatment (prognostic marker), to select those patients who would respond optimally to treatment (predictive marker), to follow the patient in order to detect of a relapse (monitoring marker), helping identifi cation the tumor-type (diagnostic marker). The main task for a biomarker is to find the best treatment with less toxicity. The main enemy of biomarkers is the heterogeneity of the tumor, the continuous change in its geno- and phenotype, which can explain the low sensitivity and specifi city. More attention should be given to standardization and validity. It is highly possible, that biomarker-panel as well as marker-based clinical trials will be used in the near future.]

Clinical Oncology

[Actual place and role of communication in Hungarian oncology]

MUSZBEK Katalin, GAAL Ilona

[The move to shared decision model from the patriarchal model of doctor-patient relationship is a communication challenge for doctors and patients as well. Communication is extremely important in Oncology, because the suggestive effect of every action of doctors and nurses is outstanding in this fi eld of healthcare. This burden has to urge professionals to self-improvement. One of the most important success of the Doctor-Patient Relationship program of the Hungarian Hospice Foundation since its launch in 2014 is the statement of two clinical centres on the importance of communication skills in everyday praxis, and engaging themselves in self-improvement. The successful cooperation also depends on patients and their care-givers not just on professionals. To gain all the necessary information is a learning process for them; even as to fi nd out the depth of information and decision level they wish. The patient who is satisfied with his or her own communication in healthcare is less distressed than the one who feels like adrifting. That gives the sense of achievement to professionals as well.]

Clinical Oncology

[Foreword]

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Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Status epilepticus and its treatment - Update 2013]

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[Our study provides an overview of the results and guidelines published on the treatment of status epilepticus in the last five years. In recent years, as a result of scientific observations and collected data, the definition of and treatment approach to status epilepticus have been refined and novel therapeutic methods have been developed. The updated guidelines provide guidance in everyday medical practice. However, only a relatively small number of randomized studies are available on status epilepticus, especially in second-line treatment and third-line treatment, thus it is difficult to transfer the newest methods into clinical practice and into updates to treatment protocols. Due to the nature and epidemiology of the disease, the treatment of status epilepticus remains a daily challenge for healthcare providers. The key points of an effective treatment are: expeditiously initiating appropriate therapy, concurrent causal treatment and anticonvulsant therapy, early detection of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, as well as avoiding "overtreatment" and side effects.]

Clinical Oncology

[Obesity and cancer]

VALTINYI Dorottya

[The role of obesity in the development of cancer is well-known from ages. However, these days we witness the explosion-like increase of obesity, globally, but mainly in the economically advanced population, and, which is even more alarming, among youngsters. The prognosis of the obesity-related cancer is rather poor, therefore, the prevention, including the screening, have outstanding importance. Unfortunately, the participation of the obes persons, especially obes women, in these programs is very low. The diagnostics and therapies should consider the special features of obesity, which are related to the magnitude, distribution, composition of fatty tissue connected to the changes in pharmacokinetics. Moreover, the problems might be complicated with obesity-associated non-tumorous severe diseases (e.g. cardiovascular, diabetes type 2).This review covers different aspects of obesity-cancer relationships, with an emphasis on everyday oncology.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Treatment of clubfoot with the Ponseti method]

KISS Sándor, TEREBESSY Tamás, HORVÁTH Nikoletta, DOMOS Gyula, GRESITS Orsolya, SZŐKE György

[INTRODUCTION - Congenital clubfoot is a severe developmental disorder. Without treatment, only the lateral border of the foot can be loaded and the sole faces the contralateral side. Good results can usually be achieved with early redression by serial casting (generally from the first week after birth) followed by extensive surgery at age six months (Achilles tendon lengthening, capsulotomy of the talo-crural and subtalar joints). The above procedure has been revolutionised by the method described by Ignacio Ponseti based on his own experiences, which has modified the casting technique and has also radically changed the surgical intervention. In this paper we report our experiences with Ponseti’s method and draw attention to this less invasive procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS -The essence of Ponseti’s techniqe is reposition of the talonavicular joint, for which the foot is corrected in a different way compared with previous practice. Following redression for 8-10 weeks, percutaneous complete Achilles tenotomy is performed and the foot is fixed for further three weeks. A special orthesis is worn in the following 6 months for 24 hours a day and the same ortézis is suggested for overnights afterwards. In our institution, 171 clubfeet (45 unilateral, 126 bilateral; 84 right, 87 left; 25 girls, 83 boys) were treated between 2007 and 2012. Our results were evaluated with the help of the Pirani score, which is a widely used method for assessment of clubfoot treatment. RESULTS - Results were evaluated at the beginning of the treatment, at the end of redression and after percutaneous Achilles tenotomy. Pirani scores were 4.54±1.30; 1.48±1.02 and 0.59±0.45 respectively. The average dorsal flexion of the ankle joints was 23±12 degrees. CONCLUSION - Our own observations support the good results published in the literature, therefore the less invasive Ponseti method is suggested for the primary treatment of congenital clubfoot.]

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[The new recommendation of management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents was published at Journal of Hypertension, September 2009. The aim of this review is - based on this guideline - to summarize the newest knowledge of epidemiology, pathomechanism, diagnosis and treatment of adolescent hypertension.]