Clinical Neuroscience

[We do need change in the education of neurosurgeons]

CSÓKAY András

SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

Clinical Neuroscience - 2006;59(09-10)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[News about the Környei Society]

KOPA János

Clinical Neuroscience

[Endogenous psychopharmacology]

BÁNKI M. Csaba

Clinical Neuroscience

[PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF TEMPORAL LOBE SURGERY]

KELEMEN Anna, RÁSONYI György, SZŰCS Anna, FABÓ Dániel, HALÁSZ Péter

[The most effective type of epilepsy surgery in adults is temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery. Three quarter of the patients become seizure free, however the remaining patients experience seizures after resection. In our study we analyzed retrospectively the possible electro-clinical, neuroimaging and surgery-related outcome predictors in 94 adult patients who had anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) from the material of Epilepsy Centre of the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Budapest since the beginning of the surgery program in 1989 until 2001. Three outcome endpoints were chosen: the seizure status at the last visit, the longest seizure free period and the time to the first non-acute postoperative seizure. The predictors were assessed by multivariate and Cox regression methods. After one year of surgery 72% of the patients were seizure free, after two years 67% and after five years 59%. Factors predicting favorable outcome in TLE surgery were: typical temporomesial aura, strictly unilateral interictal anterotemporal spikes, unilateral ictal onset, slow contralateral propagation, hippocampal sclerosis (HS) as etiology. Factors predicting poor outcome in TLE surgery were: increase in seizure frequency in the last two preoperative years, presence of preoperative psychiatric disturbances, ictal contralateral propagation, MRI lesion distant from the surgery site, incongruency of data of preoperative investigations, postoperative sequels and non-HS type MR residuum.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY: THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA IN THE HISTORY OF NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES]

PAPP Mátyás, KOVÁCS Tibor

[Multiple system atrophy (MSA) belongs to the neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system, but it is different from them in many aspects: it has no familiar form and no genetic factor was identified in the pathomechanism. Its neuropathology is unique too, because oligodendroglial cells are harbouring the main pathological burden. It was described in MSA that there is no elective neuronal degeneration in neurodegenerative disorders: the glial cells show the same patochemical and structural abnormalities as found in the neurones. The discovery of the glial cytoplasmic inclusions, as a pathognostic marker for MSA, has directed attention to the glial cells in other neurodegenerative disorders. As a result of this, there are several neurodegenerative diseases nowadays in which glial inclusions were described, similar to the neuronal inclusions in their structural and biochemical properties and some of them became the diagnostic marker of the disease. In our review we summarize the clinical features, the history and the neuropathology of MSA and we discuss its special features.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[SUDDEN DEATH AND MORTALITY IN EPILEPSY]

SZŰCS Anna, LALIT Narula, RÁSONYI György, BARCS Gábor, BÓNÉ Beáta, HALÁSZ Péter, JANSZKY József

[Mortality in epilepsy is 2-3 times higher than in the age- and sex-matched general population. It is the highest in young male epilepsy patients with generalised tonic-clonic seizures living in low socio-economical situation. The main factors of early mortality unrelated to seizures are the neurological conditions underlying epilepsy. Suicide is an important factor first of all in temporal lobe epilepsy. The group of mortality directly related to epilepsy is made up of the high-mortality grand mal status epilepticus rarely seen in treated epilepsy; the accidents related to seizures and sudden unexpected death (SUDEP). The reasons directly related to epilepsy make up about 40 per cent of epilepsy mortality. There is a 20-24-fold increase of the risk of sudden death in epilepsy compared to sudden death in the general population. The main risk of SUDEP is the “severity” of epilepsy signaled by generalized tonic-clonic seizures, resistance to antiepileptic drugs, polytherapy and frequent drug-modifications in adulthood epilepsy. Seizure-dependent autonomic changes as cardiac rhythm and breathing disturbances as well as some antiepileptic drugs and treatment modifications may contribute to the development of SUDEP. The data suggest that the main tools helping to decrease mortality in epilepsy nowadays are as follows: optimal seizure control, effective tratment of concomitant psychiatric conditions and monitoring for potentially dangerous heart dysrhythmias as well as respiration disorders.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Effects of valproate, carbamazepine and levetiracetam on Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratio

YASAR Altun, ERDOGAN Yasar

Aim - To evaluate P-wave dispersion before and after antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment as well as to investigate the risk of ventricular repolarization using the Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with epileptic disorder. Methods - A total of 63 patients receiving AED therapy and 35 healthy adults were included. ECG recordings were obtained before and 3 months after anti-epileptic treatment among patients with epilepsy. For both groups, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured using a 12-lead ECG device. Results - Tp-e interval, Tpe/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were found to be higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05, for all), while QTmax ratio was significantly lower in the patient group. After 3 months of AED therapy, significant increases in QT max, QTc max, QTcd, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc were found among the patients (p<0.05). When the arrhythmic effects of the drugs before and after treatment were compared, especially in the valproic acid group, there were significant increases in Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc values after three months of treatment (p<0.05). Carbamazepine and levetiracetam groups were not statistically significant in terms of pre- and post-treatment values. Conclusions - It was concluded that an arrhythmogenic environment may be associated with the disease, and patients who received AED monotherapy may need to be followed up more closely for arrhythmia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Acute bilateral drop foot as a complication of prolonged squatting due to haemorrhoid

KOKSAL Ayhan, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye

Drop foot is defined as difficulty of dorsiflexion of the foot and ankle due to weak anterior tibial, extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Cauda equina syndrome, local peroneal nerve damage due to trauma, nerve entrapment, compartment syndrome and tumors are common etiologies. A 32-year-old male patient was applied with difficulty in dorsiflexion of both of his toes, feet and ankles after he had squatted in toilette for 6-7 hours (because of his haemorrhoid) after intense alcohol intake 2 weeks before. Acute, partial, demyelinating lesion in head of fibula segment of peroneal nerves was diagnosed by electromyography. This case was reported since prolonged squatting is an extremely rare cause of acute bilateral peroneal neuropathy. This type of neuropathy is mostly demyelination and has good prognosis with physical therapy and mechanical devices, but surgical intervention may be required due to axonal damage. People such as workers and farmers working in the squatting position for long hours should be advised to change their position as soon as the compression symptoms (numbness, tingling) appear.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[CHANGES IN SENSITIVITY OF NOSOCOMIAL GRAM-NEGATIVE PATHOGENS TO MEROPENEM AND ITS COMPARATIVE AGENTS DURING A FOUR-YEAR PERIOD (2000-2004) - ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM TWO PROSPECTIVE MULTICENTER STUDIES IN HUNGARY]

KONKOLY Thege Marianne, BÁN Éva

[INTRODUCTION - The clinical significance of Gram-negative infections has not diminished in recent years. The number of resistant and multiresistant isolates has increased among Gramnegatives similarly to Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, panresistant strains (i.e. resistant to all available agents active against Gram-negatives) have emerged. A prospective, multicenter study carried out in 2000 was repeated in 2004 in order to have up to date knowledge of resistance situation of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria and Bacteroides fragilis. In addition, the local data of 2004 were compared to MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information) database of year 2004. MATERIALS AND METHODS - The in vitro study protocol-guided was carried out in 20 microbiology laboratories from April 1 to November 15, 2004. Study strains were isolated from relevant samples taken in medical, surgical, haematology, infectious disease wards and intensive care units. The sensitivity of 2099 aerobic Gram-negative and 97 B. fragilis isolates to meropenem and its comparator agents with excellent Gram-negative and/or antianaerob activity was tested according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards). RESULTS - Meropenem and imipenem have almost retained their 100% activity against Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter and B. fragilis. A very small number of carbapenem nonsusceptible isolates emerged among Enterobacter, Proteus and Acinetobacter strains. Meropenem and especially imipenem sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased significantly over the 4-year interval (76% vs 67%). The difference between the meropenem and imipenem sensitivity of P. aeruginosa proved significant (<0.001) and a similar difference was found in MYSTIC Programme. The isolation frequency of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella strains was relatively low (4.1% and 8.5%, respectively) in Hungary comparing to that in other European countries. Only the carbapenems inhibited consistently the ESBLproducing strains whereas ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam were ineffective versus these strains. The rate of cefepime sensitive strains declined significantly in case of Enterobacter (82%), Citrobacter (90%), Acinetobacter (31%) and P. aeruginosa (69%), whereas it did not change among Serratia and Proteus strains. The activity of ceftazidim has decreased, as well: 61% of Enterobacter, 74% of Citrobacter, 15% of Acinetobacter and 78% of P. aeuginosa isolates were sensitive to it. A trend over time toward greater resistance was noted for piperacillin/tazobactam, however, it remained the most active in vitro agent against P. aeruginosa (83%). This rate is better than that was found in MYSTIC. There was not a clear trend in changes of sensitivity to aminoglycosides in Gram-negatives. A significant decrease in gentamicin and tobramycin sensitivity of E. coli and Klebsiella was noted (<90%), and in gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin sensitivity of P. aeruginosa (57%, 65%, and 79%, respectively). Ciprofloxacin sensitivity also declined over the years: E. coli 85%, Proteus 83%, Acinetobacter 16%, P. aeruginosa 68%. Aztreonam and polymyxin sensitivity were examined only in case of P. aeruginosa because these two agents may be the drugs of choice in infections caused by multior panresistant strains: all isolates were susceptible to polymyxin, and 84% of them to aztreonam. However, panresistant isolates were not sensitive to aztreonam. Ampicillin/sulbactam may be a possible alternative drug in serious infections caused by multiresistant Acinetobacter: 83% of isolates showed sensitivity to it. Carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam and metronidazole were active against B. fragilis in 100%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistance occurred scarcely, whereas clindamycin sensitivity was only 79%. CONCLUSIONS - There is no single antibacterial agent which would be effective against >90% of most frequently occurring Gram-negative aerobic bacteria in Hungary. The high increase in resistance rates over a relatively short 4-year period will result in serious challenges in the therapy. At the same time the Hungarian sensitivity rates are better than those reported by MYSTIC Programme.]

Ca&Bone

[Disturbance of bone development in experimental hepatic cirrhosis in growing rats]

FERENCZ Viktória és munkatársai

[INTRODUCTION -The pathomechanism of hepatic osteopathy is not fully understood.We investigated how bone parameters change in growing rats with experimentally induced fatty liver, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS - Liver disease was induced by administration of CCl4 and phenobarbital (PB) following a single injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in 55 Fischer 344 rats.Animals were sacrificed and their femur removed at week 8 or 16. Bone mineral content (BMC), femoral length, cortical index (ratio of cortical thickness and total diameter at the diaphysis) and ultimate bending load (Fmax) of femora were determined. Results of animals treated with DEN+PB+CCl4 (group DPC, n=21) were compared to untreated animals (n=14) and to a second control group treated only with DEN+PB (group DP, n=20). RESULTS - Fatty liver and cirrhosis developed in each animal in the DPC group (n=21) at week 8 and in a subgroup of these animals (n=11) hepatocellular carcinoma also appeared by week 16. No changes in bone parameters were observed in this group at week 8, but lower BMD, femoral length, cortical index and Fmax values were found at week 16 compared to the untreated controls or to the DP group (p<0.05 for both). In the DP group no fatty liver or cirrhosis was observed at any time. Femoral length and Fmax values were higher in the DP group at week 8 compared to the untreated controls (p<0.05 for both).At week 16, however, no difference could be detected. CONCLUSION - Experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are associated with growth inhibition and reduced bone mineral content, cortical index and mechanical resistance in growing rats.]