Clinical Neuroscience

[Report on a research project from abroad (EFNS)]

ERTSEY Csaba

AUGUST 20, 2003

Clinical Neuroscience - 2003;56(07-08)

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[6th National Congress of the Hungarian Stroke Society]

[6th National Congress of the Hungarian Stroke Society 2003;56(07-08)]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Positron emission tomography in presurgical localization of epileptic foci]

JUHÁSZ Csaba

[The success of cortical resection for intractable epilepsy of neocortical origin is highly dependent on the accurate presurgical delineation of the regions responsible for generating seizures. In addition to EEG and structural imaging studies, functional neuroimaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) can assist lateralization and localization of epileptogenic cortical areas. In the presented studies, objectively delineated focal PET abnormalities have been analyzed in patients (mostly children) with intractable epilepsy, using two different tracers: 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), that measures regional brain glucose metabolism, and [11C]flumazenil (FMZ), that binds to GABAA receptors. The PET abnormalities were correlated with scalp and intracranial EEG findings, structural brain abnormalities, as well as surgical outcome data. In patients with extratemporal foci and no lesion on MRI, FMZ PET was more sensitive than FDG PET for identification of the seizure onset zone defined by intracranial EEG monitoring. In contrast, seizures commonly originated from the border of hypometabolic cortex detected by FDG PET suggesting that such areas are most likely epileptogenic, and should be addressed if subdural EEG is applied to delineate epileptic cortex. In patients with cortical lesions, perilesional cortex with decreased FMZ binding was significantly smaller than corresponding areas of glucose hypometabolism, and correlated well with spiking cortex. Extent of perilesional hypometabolism, on the other hand, showed a correlation with the life-time number of seizures suggesting a seizurerelated progression of brain dysfunction. FMZ PET proved to be also very sensitive for detection of dual pathology (coexistence of an epileptogenic cortical lesion and hippocampal sclerosis). This has a major clinical importance since resection of both the cortical lesion and the atrophic hippocampus is required to achieve optimal surgical results. Finally, the author demonstrated that in patients with neocortical epilepsy, FDG PET abnormalities correctly regionalize the epileptogenic area, but their size is not related to the extent of epileptogenic tissue to be removed. In contrast, complete resection of cortex with decreased FMZ binding predicts good surgical outcome suggesting that application of FMZ PET can improve surgical results in selected patients with intractable epilepsy of neocortical origin.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Imaging of dopamine transporter with 99mTc-TRODAT-SPECT in movement disorders]

KANYÓ Balázs, ÁRGYELÁN Miklós, DIBÓ György, SZAKONYI Zsolt, VÉCSEI László, FÜLÖP Ferenc, LÁNCZ Adrienn, FORGÁCS Péter, PÁVICS László

[99mTc-TRODAT-1 is a new, technetium based radiopharmaceutical that selectively binds to the dopamine transporters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the dopamine transporter status in movement disorders. Methods - In eight healthy volunteers (age range 22-58 years), 28 patients with Parkinson’s disease (age range 42-80 years), 10 patients with Parkinsonian syndrome (age range 51-79 years) and 13 patients with essential tremor (age range 43-71 years) were 99mTc-TRODAT-SPECT tests performed. The results were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively. Results - The visual assessments were concordant with those of the semiquantitative in each case. The 99mTc- TRODAT uptake of the striatum was referenced to the cerebellum, the frontal and occipital cortex. The best deviation was found in aspect of the occipital cortex. The striatum/occipital ratio was the following: healthy volunteers: 2.12±0.27; Parkinson’s disease: 1.52±0.27; Parkinsonian syndrome: 1.57±0.26; essential tremor: 2.06±0.69. The striatal dopamine transporter availability was significantly lower in subjects with Parkinson's disease or Parkinsonian syndrome compared to the control subjects. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with essential tremor. Using discriminant analysis, the discriminant function had significantly different values in the group of Parkinson’s disease than in Parkinsonian syndrome: f= -3.675×caud/occipit+6.293×put/occipit -2.548. Conclusion - 99mTc-TRODAT-SPECT is able to visualise the presynaptic dopaminergic degeneration. This method itself can be useful in differential diagnosis in some type of movement disorders.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[CONGRESS CALENDAR]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Two cases of frontotemporal dementia]

SZABÓ Erzsébet, SZABÓ Mihály

[Frontotemporal dementias represent the third most common cause of primer degenerative dementias next to Alzheimer’s disease and Lewy body disease. Frontotemporal dementia constitutes 10-20% of all praesenilis dementias. The authors present the results of the 10 years' clinical, neuropsychological, neuropathological examinations and brain imaging with the examples of two cases. At the early stage of frontotemporal dementia changes of personality and social conduct are prominent, whereas cognitive functions are relativelly well preserved. The usual dementia tests are not sufficiently sensitive to disclose noncognitive symptoms. Clinical diagnosis as well as differentiation from functional psychiatric disorders can be difficult. Brain imaging present the frontal and the anterior temporal lobe atrophy and selective hypometabolism in these areas. The typical onset is between at the age 50 and 65 years. It is very rare under the age of 30. The symptoms of two patients started at the age of 42-44. The first diagnosis was post traumatic stress disorder. Later stereotyped behaviour, mental rigidity, hyperorality, irritability, progressive reduction of speech and vegetative dysfunctions appeared. Besides the affecting of the irresistibly worsening symptoms and the medical care requiring strength and inventiveness, the authentic informing of the relatives is also a challenge. The caregivers have special relationship with the patients and their relatives.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

VASTAGH Ildikó, SZŐCS Ildikó, OBERFRANK Ferenc, AJTAY András, BERECZKI Dániel

[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vaccines against COVID-19 pandemic]

FALUS András, SZEKANECZ Zoltán

[The rapidly spreading SARS-CoV2 respiratory virus has evoked an epidemic with serious aftermath around the world. In addition to the health effects, the global economic damage is actually unpredictable. At the same time, the pandemic has launched a series of unprecedented collaborative scientific research, including the development of vaccines. This study summarizes up-to-date information on vaccines, immune memory, and some emerging clinical effects.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Clinical Neuroscience

A variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: AMSAN

TUTAR Kaya Nurhan, EYIGÜRBÜZ Tuğba, YILDIRIM Zerrin, KALE Nilufer

Introduction - Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection that has rapidly become a global pandemic and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed with great success. In this article, we would like to present a patient who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is a serious complication after receiving the inactive SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac). Case report – A 76-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with nine days of progressive limb weakness. Two weeks prior to admission, he received the second dose of CoronaVac vaccine. Motor examination revealed decreased extremity strength with 3/5 in the lower extremities versus 4/5 in the upper extremities. Deep tendon reflexes were absent in all four extremities. Nerve conduction studies showed predominantly reduced amplitude in both motor and sensory nerves, consistent with AMSAN (acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy). Conclusion - Clinicians should be aware of the neuro­logical complications or other side effects associated with COVID-19 vaccination so that early treatment can be an option.