Clinical Neuroscience

[Reflections on the meditations about the future of neurology]

KOPA János

MARCH 20, 2011

Clinical Neuroscience - 2011;64(03-04)



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Interdisciplinary approach of vestibular system impairment]


[In the first part of this review the definition of vertigo/dizziness was discussed. The major difference between the two signs is the exsistence of the direction, which is specific for vertigo. Dizziness is a frequent complaint in the clinical practice. Its frequency is increasing with advance of age, to intimate the play of declining cognitive process in the pathogenesis of its. The popular health significance of vertigo is in the rowing number of the patients. The onset of the most cases with acute vertigo appears between secundums and minutes so the patients will be provided in circumstances of emergency department. First of all three form schould be take into account: neuronitis vestibularis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere syndrome. Without tipical periferal signs of vertigo, central cause should be searched, principally stroke (lysis possibility). The differential diagnose of the different dizzeness/vertigo forms according to the elapsed time of the onset or congenital and acquired nystagmus was created in tables. The recommendations of the therapy of acute and chronic dizziness/ vertigo syndroms are, lack of results of evidence based trials doubtful. The more often used drugs based on clinical trials are discussed as vinpocetine, betahistine and piracetam. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that the last molecule is eligible to use both in periferal and central type of vertigo syndroms.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: description of the syndrome in line with presentation of the first Hungarian patient]

HOLLÓDY Katalin, CSÁBI Györgyi, LÁNG Anikó, RÓZSAI Barnabás, KOMÁROMY Hedvig, BORS László, ILLÉS Zsolt

[In the majority of cases, anti-NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor encephalitis is a severe, but treatable disorder, therefore early diagnosis and adequate therapy are very important. It should be suspected in children and young women, who develop acute psychiatric symptoms and seizures. During the course of the disease severe encephalopathy, agitation, hallucinations, orofacial dyskinesias, prolonged cognitive disturbance, autonomic symptoms can be observed and akinetic mutism develops. EEG shows diffuse slowing. Brain MRI is normal or unspecific. Elevated protein, pleiocytosis and oligoclonal bands can be present in the CSF. Detection of NMDA-receptor antibodies in sera or CSF confirms diagnosis. We present the case of a 15-year old girl, who fully recovered within two months after steroid treatment and repeated plasma exchange. Ovarian teratoma has not been detected.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Why to say good-bye? Where are we going? Let us adapt!]


Clinical Neuroscience

[Congress calendar]

Clinical Neuroscience

[CADASIL and other hereditary small vessel diseases of the brain - Increasingly diagnosed conditions underlying familial ischaemic stroke and dementia]

GUNDA Bence, HUGUES Chabriat, BERECZKI Dániel

[CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) has recently gained great interest in vascular neurology as the most common heritable cause of stroke and vascular dementia in adults. This autosomal dominant small vessel disease of the brain - unlike the sporadic, hypertensive form - appears already in adult midlife in the absence of vascular risk factors with ischemic episodes and progressive dementia, its first manifestation can be migraine with aura, and is often associated with psychiatric disturbances. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes showing a characteristic pattern may precede symptoms by more than a decade. The identification of the mautation of the NOTCH 3 gene responsible for the disorder encoding a transmembrane receptor of vascular smooth muscle cells - has given great impetus on research to understand the molecular and vascular pathogenesis of the disease. The special importance of this latter lies in the fact that CADASIL provides a pure genetic model for subcortical cerebral ischemia and vascular dementia without the confounding factors of comorbidities and advanced age. Thus insights into CADASIL may help us better understand the more common sporadic forms as well. Moreover CADASIL is one of the best studied examples of secondary migraine. Currently we have far less knowledge on other forms of hereditary small vessel disease of the brain such as CARASIL, HERNS, CRV, HVR, PXE etc. Neurologists are becoming more and more familiar with CADASIL, and with the wider availability of MRI it is increasingly diagnosed. However the disorder is still probably underrecognised. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge on CADASIL with special emphasis on diagnostic and diffrential diagnostic points for the practising neurologist.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

To handle the HaNDL syndrome through a case: The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis


The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is a rare entity. This disease has been related to migrainous headaches. It is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is characterized by fluctuating neurological symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. We describe a case of a 47 years old man with acute onset of headache and aphasia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis (25 cells/μl, 100% lymphocytes). Electroencephalogram showed moderate slow rhythm in the left hemisphere, with temporoparietal predominance, and without epileptiform activity. His blood tests as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were normal. With the diagnosis of HaNDL syndrome the patient was accepted in the Department of Neurology and discharged with full recovery.

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.


[New findings in the cortical bone biology and its role in bone fractures]


[The authors surveyed the already known factors responsible for the osteoporotic bone fragility. Then the results of using modern imaging techniques (micro-CT, high-resolution peripheral computed quantitative tomograph - HR-pQCT) and advanced computer analytic methods (finite element analysis, FEA) are presented. These data - beyond the already known fracture risk factors (age, risk of falling, bone mineral density - BMD, and fine structure damage of trabecular bone) are stressing the importance of the (micro)damage of cortical bone as a fracture risk factor, which has been still underrated. The cortical thickening and increased porosity - verified on various population samples - are increasing the risk of fractures in certain subgroups of subjects having identical BMD values, even among those, who are considered only osteopenic by the earlier classification based on BMD values. Backed with modern software batteries, the new imaging techniques are expected to enter clinical application in the near future. Pharmacologic agents with stronger cortical effect are already available and research is continuing to find new drugs to use in the management of osteoporotic patients of high fracture risk.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Relationship between Status Epilepticus Severity Score and etiology in adult NCSE patients

GENC Fatma, ERDAL Abidin, AKCA Gizem, KARACAY Ertan, GÖKSU Özaydın Eylem, KUTLU Gülnihal, GÖMCELI Bicer Yasemin

Purpose - Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a heterogeneous, severe neurological disorder of different etiologies. In this study, the outcomes of NCSE episodes was assessed in a large series of adult patients. Our objective was to evaluate relationship between Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and etiology and the role of etiological factors on predicting the outcomes. Method - In this retrospective study, the medical records of 95 patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with NCSE between June 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed. Their treatment and follow-up for NCSE was performed at the Epilepsy Unit in Department of Neurology, Antalya Research and Training Hospital. Etiological factors thought to be responsible for NCSE episodes as well as the prognostic data were retrieved. The etiological factors were classified into three groups as those with a known history of epilepsy (Group 1), primary neurological disorder (Group 2), or systemic/unknown etiology (Group 3). STESS was retrospectively applied to patients. Results - There were 95 participants, 59 of whom were female. Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 consisted of 11 (7 female), 54 (33 female), and 30 (19 female) patients, respectively. Of the 18 total deaths, 12 occurred in Group 2, and 6 in Group 3. The negative predictive value for a STESS score of ≤ 2 was 93.88% (+LR 2.05 95% CI: 1.44-2.9 and -LR 0.3 95% CI 0.10-0.84 ) in the overall study group. While the corresponding values for Group 1 (patients with epilepsy), Group 2 (patients with primary neurological disorder), and group 3 (patients with systemic or unknown etiology) were 100%, 92.59% (+LR 2.06 95%CI: 1.32-3.21 and -LR 0.28 95% CI 0.08-1.02 ) 83.33% (+LR 1.14 95%CI: 0.59-2.9 and -LR 0.80 95% CI 0.23-2.73). Conclusions - This study included the one of the largest patients series ever reported in whom STESS, a clinical scoring system proposed for use in patients with status epilepticus, has been implemented. Although STESS appeared to be quite useful for predicting a favorable outcome in NCSE patients with epilepsy and primary neurological disorders, its predictive value in patients with systemic or unknown etiology was lower. Further prospective studies including larger NCSE samples are warranted.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Hypertension and atrial fibrillation. Part 3. Screening of atrial fibrillation with active involvement of patients. New telemedicine devices]


[In the early detection of atrial fibrillation, new devices and methods with smart phone applications for patients’ self-control a regaining increasing role. The author provides a detailed description of a number of reliable, validated - working on smart phones or without her solutions - equipment with pulse or ECG recording and the irvalue in every day clinical practice. They promote closer physician - patient cooperation and signal the future of prevention and care of atrial fibrillation. In the early detection of atrial fibrillation, new devices and methods with smart phone applications for patients’ self-control a regain in gin creasing role.]