Clinical Neuroscience


KOVÁCS Norbert, BALÁS István, JANSZKY József, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, NAGY Ferenc, DÓCZI Tamás, KOMOLY Sámuel

JANUARY 22, 2008

Clinical Neuroscience - 2008;61(01-02)

[Deep brain stimulation is a widely used technique for the treatment of movement disorders. This method is a breakthrough in treatment of drug-resistant idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor and dystonia. The aim of the present paper is to give an inside overview of the postoperative management like fine tuning of the stimulation and balancing the antiparkinsonian medication. We also discuss the advantage of the use of the (Access Therapy) patient controller. After reviewing the stimulation-related side-effects and their management, the contraindicated medical procedures are discussed.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Functional magnetic resonance imaging in neurology (in English language)]


[The present contribution discusses the clinical use of functional MRI (fMRI) and its role in the most common neurological diseases. FMRI was found a reliable and reproducible examination tool resulting in a wide distribution of fMRI methods in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy in determining the relationship of eloquent areas and the epileptic focus. Preliminary data suggest that fMRI using memory paradigms can predict the postoperative memory decline in epilepsy surgery by determining whether a reorganization of memory functions took place. Speech-activated fMRI became the most used tool in determining hemispheric dominance. Visual and senso-motor cortex can also be routinely investigated by fMRI which helps in decision on epilepsy surgery. FMRI combined with EEG is a new diagnostic tool in epilepsy and sleep disorders. FMRI can identify the penumbra after stroke and can provide an additional information on metabolic state of the threatened brain tissue. FMRI has a predictive role in poststroke recovery. In relapsing-remitting MS an adaptive reorganization can be demonstrated by fMRI affecting the visual, motor, and memory systems, despite preserved functional performance. Much more extensive reorganization can be demonstrated in secondary progressive MS. These findings suggest that the different stages of MS are related to different stages of the reorganization and MS becomes progressive when there is no more reserve capacity in the brain for reorganization. FMRI offers the capability of detecting early functional hemodynamic alterations in Alzheimer’s disease before morphological changes. FMRI can be a valuable tool to test and monitor treatment efficacy in AD. FMRI can also provide information about the mechanisms of different therapeutic approaches in Parkinson disorder including drug treatment and deep brain stimulation.]

Clinical Neuroscience


BENEDEK Krisztina, PÁLFFY Andrea, BENCSIK Krisztina, FEJES Imre, RAJDA Cecília, TUBOLY Gábor, LISZLI Péter

[Objective - To survey the role of pattern electroretinography (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the process of clinical evaluation of neuro-ophthalmological cases. The study is illustrated with the electrophysiological findings of 231 patients sent to our laboratory in 2005 because of the suspicion of damage in the optic pathway. Methods - The RETIport program of the ROLAND equipment (Wiesbaden - Germany) was used to record PERGs and VEPs. The recordings were done according to the recommendations of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. Results - The combined application of PERG and VEP provided useful data on the retino-cortical conduction time and hence demyelinisation. The comparison of the N35/P50 and P50/N90 amplitudes of the PERG recordings greatly promoted the diagnostic procedure. Conclusions - The combined application of PERG and VEP methods is recommended in the assessment of optic nerve function of neuro-ophthalmological patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Complex regional pain syndrome]


[Complex regional pain syndrome is one of the frequently topics to be discussed during International Congresses. Three books have been published recently by the IASP Press (1994., 2001., 2005.) The aim of my publications is to draw the attention to this syndrome frequently unrecognized, and to summarize an interesting case report.]

Clinical Neuroscience



[The triple combination of levodopa, DDCI and entacapone (Stalevo) is used to treat motor complication in Parkinsonian patients with fluctuation. An observational investigation has been conducted in Hungary to study the effects of Stalevo on the “wearing off” phenomenon and on the quality of life in patients, who are to be treated with. The introduction of Stalevo to the treatment resulted in no changes in the number of patients taking selegiline, amantadine and dopamin agonists, while the number of patients taking anticholinergic drugs were slightly increased. This treatment significantly decreased the average Hoehn-Yahr stadium, as well as the non-motor symptoms, without any remarkable side effect. Stalevo also improved the quality of life, detected by the EQ-5D questionare and the visual analoge scale.]

Clinical Neuroscience


KOVÁCS Gábor Géza, KŐVÁRI Viktor, NAGY Zoltán

[Background - Dementia is an increasing problem of the society. The underlying cause of dementia may be difficult to diagnose during life. Only neuropathological examination gives definite diagnosis. Differences in the reported frequency may be related to factors such as the age or gender of subjects with dementia. Materials and methods - In our neuropathology-based study we examined 156 consecutive subjects clinically diagnosed with dementia during a 3-year period. Using histopathological criteria we calculated the frequencies of various disorders causing dementia. We studied the effect of age and gender on these frequencies. Results - Alzheimer’s disease was the most frequent pathologic finding (57.7%) followed by vascular dementia (43%); diffuse Lewy body disease (15.4%); argyrophilic grain dementia (12.1%), various forms of frontotemporal dementia (5.7%); and other (4.5%). The latter comprise prion disease, alcoholic encephalopathy, and hippocampal sclerosis. Mixed pathology was common: concomitant Alzheimer’s disease was present in 41.6% of diffuse Lewy body disease cases and in 49.2% of vascular dementia patients. Pure disease forms are rare: Alzheimer’s disease: 26.3%, vascular dementia: 17.3%, diffuse Lewy body disease: 5.1%, argyrophilic grain dementia: 2.5%. Females were overrepresented among those with Alzheimer’s disease with age at death above 75 years (p <0.02), while males were overrepresented in patients below 75 years with vascular dementia (p <0.05). Conclusions - Our study indicates that the frequency of neurodegenerative dementias is high in the examined patients, but vascular pathology frequently influences the clinical course.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Retinal morphological changes during the two years of follow-up in Parkinson’s disease

ATUM Mahmut, DEMIRYÜREK Enes Bekir

The study aims to investigate the relationship between the progression of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) and retinal morphology. The study was carried out with 23 patients diagnosed with early-stage IPD (phases 1 and 2 of the Hoehn and Yahr scale) and 30 age-matched healthy controls. All patients were followed up at least two years, with 6-month intervals (initial, 6th month, 12th month, 18th month, and 24th month), and detailed neurological and ophthalmic examinations were performed at each follow-up. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS Part III) scores, Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scores, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, central macular thickness (CMT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were analyzed at each visit. The average age of the IPD and control groups was 43.96 ± 4.88 years, 44.53 ± 0.83 years, respectively. The mean duration of the disease in the IPD group was 7.48 ± 5.10 months at the start of the study (range 0-16). There was no statistically significant difference in BCVA and IOP values between the two groups during the two-year follow-up period (p> 0.05, p> 0.05, respectively). Average and superior quadrant RNFL thicknesses were statistically different between the two groups at 24 months and there was no significant difference between other visits (p=0.025, p=0.034, p> 0.05, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in CMT between the two groups during the follow-up period (p> 0.05). Average and superior quadrant RNFL thicknesses were significantly thinning with the progression of IPD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease]


[The treatment of Parkinson’s disease depends on the symptoms of the patients and obviously the stage of the disease. Several different approaches can be found in the literature. Based on the published data, in this review we try to summarize the different approaches to the disease stages and theirs’ clinical relevance. Actually, one of the most important issue is the recognition of advanced stage and therefore we reviewed the device-aided therapies. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Earlier and more efficiently: the role of deep brain stimulation for parkinson’s disease preserving the working capabilities]

DELI Gabriella, BALÁS István, KOMOLY Sámuel, DÓCZI Tamás, JANSZKY József, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, NAGY Ferenc, BOSNYÁK Edit, KOVÁCS Norbert

[Background – The recently published “EarlyStim” study demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) with early fluctuations is superior to the optimal pharmacological treatment in improving the quality of life and motor symptoms, and preserving sociocultural position. Our retrospective investigation aimed to evaluate if DBS therapy was able to preserve the working capabilities of our patients. Methods – We reviewed the data of 39 young (<60 years-old) PD patients who underwent subthalamic DBS implantation at University of Pécs and had at least two years follow-up. Patients were categorized into two groups based on their working capabilities: Patients with active job (“Job+” group, n=15) and retired patients (without active job, “Job-” group, n=24). Severity of motor symptoms (UPDRS part 3), quality of life (EQ-5D) and presence of active job were evaluated one and two years after the operation. Results – As far as the severity of motor symptoms were concerned, similar (approximately 50%) improvement was achieved in both groups. However, the postoperative quality of life was significantly better in the Job+ group. Majority (12/15, 80%) of Job+ group members were able to preserve their job two years after the operation. However, only a minimal portion (1/24, 4.2%) of the Job- group members was able to return to the world of active employees (p<0.01, McNemar test). Conclusion – Although our retrospective study has several limitations, our results fit well with the conclusions of “EarlyStim” study. Both of them suggest that with optimal timing of DBS implantation we may preserve the working capabilities of our patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Vinpocetin in neurological diseases]

SZAPÁRY László, KÉSMÁRKY Gábor, TÓTH Kálmán, MISNYOVSZKY Melinda, TÓTH Tímea, BALOGH Ágnes, NAGY Krisztián, NÉMETH György, FEHÉR Gergely

[Introduction - Stroke is the third leading cause of death worldwide (following cardiovascular and cancer mortality) and associated with serious disability for the vast majority of patients. There is no salvage therapy for irreversibly damaged brain areas, improving the circulation of the surrounding hypoperfused territories may be associated with benefitial clinical states. Cerebral hypoperfusion may play a role in the pathogenesis of other kind of neurological diseases, improvement of global circulation may have a preventive effect on these conditions. Aims - The aim of our study was to review the experimental and clinical articles focusing on the role of vinpocetin in different neurological conditions. Results - Vinpocetin appears to have several different mechanisms of action that allow for its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, vasodilating, antiepileptic and neuroprotective activities in experimental conditions. On the other hand, several meta-analysis of the existing studies in acute stroke examining short and long term fatality rates with vinpocetin was unable to assess efficacy. In chronic cerebrovascular patients, vinpocetin improves impaired hemorheological variables, has significant vasodilating properties, improves endothelial dysfunction, neuroimaging studies showed selective increase in cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate, all of which are potentially beneficial in cerebrovascular disease and may improve cognitive functions. Summary - Based on the above mentioned results vinpocetin plays an important role both in basic research and in clinical management of different neurological diseases.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease therapy - 15 years of experience of the Neurological Clinics from Tîrgu Mureș. A cross-sectional study ]

SZÁSZ József Attila, CONSTANTIN Viorelia, MIHÁLY István, BIRÓ István, PÉTER Csongor, ORBÁN-KIS Károly, SZATMÁRI Szabolcs

[Background and purpose - There is relatively few data regarding the usage of dopaminagonists for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease; furthermore, there are no publications regarding Central- and Eastern-European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of dopamine agonists as a therapeutic option amongst Parkinson’s disease patients admitted to the Neurological Clinics of Tîrgu Mures during the last 15 years. Methods - In our study we investigated the data of all Parkinson’s patients treated at our clinics between the 1st of January 2003 and the 31st of December 2017. We analyzed the particularities of dopamine agonists’ usage based on the therapeutic recommendations from the final report of these patients. Regarding time since the diagnosis, we divided the patients in two groups: less than or equal to 5 years and more than 5 years. Results - During the studied period a total of 2379 patients with Parkinson’s disease were treated at the Clinics. From the 1237 patients with disease duration under 5 years 665 received dopamine agonists: 120 as monotherapy, 83 together with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and in 234 cases associated with levodopa. The remaining 228 patients were treated with a triple combination of levodopa, dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. In patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease for more than 5 years, in 364 cases out of 653 a dopamine agonist was part of the therapy. Conclusion - The usage of dopamine agonists was similar to the data presented in other studies. We consider that clinicians treating the disease should, with the necessary prudence, use the available and recommended dopamine agonist with the utmost courage to their maximum therapeutic potential.]