Clinical Neuroscience

[Forum of Young Neurologists - Debrecen, September 13-14., 2002]

APRIL 20, 2003

Clinical Neuroscience - 2003;56(03-04)



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dr. Ilona Jelencsik (1944-2002)]


Clinical Neuroscience

[Occipital spectral EEG-parameters in newly diagnosed, untreated epilepsy patients]


[Introduction - Minor spectral EEG alterations hidden to the naked eye may be of interest in the field of epileptology, cognitive performances, and drug effects. In order to introduce new scientific results of brain wave research into the clinical field of epilepsy- and drug-related cognitive problems, a normative quantitative EEG database for epilepsy was constructed. Patients and methods - 171 newly referred, five to 50 years old patients with untreated ”new” epilepsy (that is, clinical, EEG, MRI investigations had been done in 24 months after the first unprovoked seizure) were collected. EEG was recorded with closed eyes, in the waking-relaxed state. Effects that are known to influence EEG spectra (nearby seizures, drugs, etc.) were excluded as far as possible. A total of two minutes of waking-resting EEG activity was chosen for spectral analysis. Fast Fourier transformation of the selected samples were calculated resulting in absolute power, percent power and mean alpha frequency (AA, RA, and AMF respectively) for the right and left occipital derivations. For each patient (and also for 37 healthy controls), the deviation of the individual values from the age-adjusted normative mean was expressed in Z-score. Main diagnostic epilepsy categories were compared to the control group as well as to each other. In addition, effects of MRI-defined cerebral lesions and interictal spiking on spectral EEG parameters were investigated. Results - All group averages were within the 95 per cent confidence interval. Overwhelming majority of the individual data fell within a 3Z range. Statistically significant differences were found for AA and RA, but seldom for AMF. Right and left alpha-parameters were surprisingly symmetrical in all groups. The main difference between epilepsy groups and controls was less AA and RA power in the epilepsy groups. MRI-defined lesions and interictal epileptiform activity did not significantly influence EEG spectral variables. Conclusion - These results might serve as reference data and might help planning of further quantitative EEG studies in the triangle of epilepsy, cognitive problems, and drug effects.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Surgery of ventral intradural midline cervical spinal pathologies via anterior cervical approach: our experience]


[Introduction - The surgical removal of the cervical intradural pathologies located ventrally carries a high risk. According to the anatomical situation and the increasing experience with anterior cervical approach and corpectomy revealed the reality to remove the ventral midline pathologies this way. The anterior approach which require corpectomy preferable to cervical intradural lesions located ventrally at the midline. In the literature have described anterior approach for intradural cervical lesions in very limited cases. Case - The authors present five cases of intradural ventral cervical spinal pathologies, where removal was done via anterior cervical approach with corpectomy. Two of the cases were intradural meningeomas, one intramedullary cavernoma, one ventral arachnoid cyst and one malignant neurogenic tumour. The approach was described elsewhere. The corpectomy gave a relatively wide window to explore the pathologies and under operative microscope the local control of removal was fairly well. After the total removal of tumours and cavernoma, and fenestration of arachnoid cyst to the subarachnoid space watertight dural closure was made and the cervical spine was stabilized with autolog iliac bone graft, plate and screws. The recovery of the patients was well and there were no postoperative complications. Conclusions - The anterior cervical approach with corpectomy seems to be a real and safe way to explore and remove the cervical ventral midline pathologies. Postoperative MRI has a great value in early control after the surgery and for follow up the patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Facts and memories of Kálmán Sántha]


Clinical Neuroscience


All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Clinical Neuroscience

Cyanocobalamin and cholecalciferol synergistically improve functional and histopathological nerve healing in experimental rat model

ALBAY Cem, ADANIR Oktay, AKKALP Kahraman Asli, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, GULAEC Akif Mehmet, BEYTEMUR Ozan

Introduction - Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a frequent problem among young adults. Hopefully, regeneration can occur in PNI unlike central nervous system. If nerve cut is complete, gold standard treatment is surgery, but incomplete cuts have been tried to be treated by medicines. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare clinical and histopathological outcomes of independent treatment of each of Vitamin B12 (B12) and Vitamin D3 (D3) and their combination on sciatic nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods - Experimental animal study was performed after the approval of BEH Ethics Committee No. 2015/10. 32 rats were grouped into four (n=8) according to treatment procedures, such as Group 1 (controls with no treatment), Group 2 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12), Group 3 (oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3), Group 4 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12+ oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3). Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and histopathological analysis were performed. Results - SFIs of Group 2, 3, 4 were statistically significantly higher than controls. Group 2 and 3 were statistically not different, however Group 4 was statistically significantly higher than others according to SFI. Axonal degeneration (AD) in all treatment groups were statistically significantly lower than in Group 1. AD in Group 4 was significantly lower than in Group 2 and 3; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and 3. There was no significant difference between Group 1,2 and 3 in Axonolysis (A). But A of Group 4 was significantly very much lower than all others. Oedema- inflammation (OE-I) in all treatment groups were significantly lower than in Group 1; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and group 4. OE-I in Group 2 and 4 were significantly lower than in Group 3. There were no significant differences between Group 1, 2 and 3 in damage level scores; score of Group 4 was significantly lower than of Group 1. Conclusions - B12 and D3 were found effective with no statistically significant difference. But combined use of B12 and D3 improve nerve healing synergistically. We recommend combined use of B12 and D3 after PNI as soon as possible.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Zonisamide: one of the first-line antiepileptic drugs in focal epilepsy ]


[Chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs without history of unprovoked epileptic seizures are not recommended for epilepsy prophylaxis. Conversely, if the patient suffered the first unprovoked seizure, then the presence of epileptiform discharges on the EEG, focal neurological signs, and the presence of epileptogenic lesion on the MRI are risk factors for a second seizure (such as for the development of epilepsy). Without these risk factors, the chance of a second seizure is about 25-30%, while the presence of these risk factors (for example signs of previous stroke, neurotrauma, or encephalitis on the MRI) can predict >70% seizure recurrence. Thus the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) re-defined the term ’epilepsy’ which can be diagnosed even after the first seizure, if the risk of seizure recurrence is high. According to this definition, we can start antiepileptic drug therapy after a single unprovoked seizure. There are four antiepileptic drugs which has the highest evidence (level „A”) as first-line initial monotherapy for treating newly diagnosed epilepsy. These are: carbamazepine, phenytoin, levetiracetam, and zonisamide (ZNS). The present review focuses on the ZNS. Beacuse ZNS can be administrated once a day, it is an optimal drug for maintaining patient’s compliance and for those patients who have a high risk for developing a non-compliance (for example teenagers and young adults). Due to the low interaction potential, ZNS treatment is safe and effective in treating epilepsy of elderly people. ZNS is an ideal drug in epilepsy accompanied by obesity, because ZNS has a weight loss effect, especially in obese patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Family planning in multiple sclerosis: conception, pregnancy, breastfeeding]

RÓZSA Csilla

[Family planning is an exceptionally important question in multiple sclerosis, as women of childbearing age are the ones most often affected. Although it is proven that pregnancy does not worsen the long-term prognosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, many patients are still doubtful about having children. This question is further complicated by the fact that patients – and often even doctors – are not sufficiently informed about how the ever-increasing number of available disease-modifying treatments affect pregnancies. Breastfeeding is an even less clear topic. Patients usually look to their neurologists first for answers concerning these matters. It falls to the neurologist to rationally evaluate the risks and benefits of contraception, pregnancy, assisted reproduction, childbirth, breastfeeding and disease modifying treatments, to inform patients about these, and then together come to a decision about the best possible therapeutic approach, taking the patients’ individual family plans into consideration. Here we present a review of relevant literature adhering to international guidelines on the topics of conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, with a special focus on the applicability of approved disease modifying treatments during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The goal of this article is to provide clinicians involved in the care of MS patients with up-to-date information that they can utilize in their day-to-day clinical practice. ]