Clinical Neuroscience

[EXPERIENCE WITH LEVETIRACETAM IN CHILDHOOD EPILEPSY]

NEUWIRTH Magdolna, SARACZ Judit, HEGYI Márta, PARAICZ Éva, KOLLÁR Katalin, MÓSER Judit, ROSDY Beáta, HERCZEGFALVI Ágnes, FOGARASI András

MAY 30, 2006

Clinical Neuroscience - 2006;59(05-06)

[Objective - To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in children with drug resistant epilepsy from a retrospective study. Methods - We report the result of a study of 85 pediatric patients (mean 10.5 years, range: 1-24) with refractory generalized and focal epilepsy, who received levetiracetam as add-on treatment. The average duration of epilepsy was eight years, and the patient were treated with mean of 6.0 antiepileptic drugs befor levetiracetam was introduced. Results - Ten patients (12%) became seizuresfree, three (3%) responded with seizure reduction of more than 90%, 32 (38%) responded with seizure reduction of more than 50% following introduction of levetiracetam. No response to levetiracetam was reported in 34% (n: 29). Positive psychotopic effect was observed in 26 patient (30%). Mild to moderate side effects were reported in 11 patients (13%), consisting most frequently general behavioral changes, agression, sleep disturbances, but they ceased after decreasing the dose of levetiracetam. Mental retardation was associated with poor response and associated with more side effects. Conclusion - Levetiracetam is well tolerated new antiepileptic drug that may effectively improve seizures controll as an addon drug in resistant epilepsy in childhood with good tolerability.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[EPILEPSY AND MALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: ETIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY]

BÓNÉ Beáta, JANSZKY József

[While 10% of healthy men had sexual dysfunctions, male epilepsy patients experience sexual problems in 40-70%. The cause of sexual dysfunction in epilepsy is multifactorial, but there are three main factors: the epilepsy itself, antiepileptic treatment and psychiatrical/psychic problems. Antiepileptics with hepatic enzyme induction potential (carbamazepine, phenytoin) enhance the metabolism of sexual steroids. Valproic acid as an enzyme inhibitor and drug with high protein binding affinity elevates the free serum levels of androgenes. Certain antiepileptic drugs may have negative cognitive side effects, some of them can induce psychiatric disorders. These drugs can facilitate male sexual dysfunctions through these psychic side effects. The metabolic and endocrine alterations caused by carbamazepin may return to normal level after replacement of carbamazepin with oxcarbazepine. After an oxcarbazepin-carbamazepin replacement, carbamazepin-induced impotency can be cured. According some new data lamotrigine can also help in sexual dysfunction. The therapy of sexual dysfunction in epilepsy depends on its cause. In cases of hormonal alterations, the fist step is a change of antiepileptic regimen. Instead of enzymeinductor antiepileptics and valproate, new antiepileptic drugs should be prescribed. At present, the most investigated antiepileptic drug is the oxcarbazepine with positive effect on antiepileptic-induced male sexual dysfunction, however, lamotrigine seems to be also beneficial. If the hormonal and sexual dysfunctions cannot be eliminated by drug changes, androgenic therapy or bromocriptin may be required. Testosteron may not only be beneficial on sexual functions, but can reduce also the seizure frequency. Independent of etiology, erectile dysfunctions can be successfully treated by sildenafil.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[ABSTRACTS OF THE 8TH CONGRESS OF THE HUNGARIAN EPILEPSY LEAGUE Pécs, 25-27 May, 2006.]

[Abstracts of the 8th congress of the hungarian epilepsy league Pecs 25-27 may 2006]

Clinical Neuroscience

[COMPLEX GAZE DISTURBANCE CAUSED BY THALAMIC AND MESENCEPHALIC INFARCTS]

GULYÁS Szilvia, NAGY Ferenc, SZIRMAI Imre

[A 36 year-old male patient developed sudden double vision and gait imbalance. Neurological examination revealed gaze paresis upward and on the left side downward (vertical “oneand- a-half”-syndrome), horizontal gaze nystagmus on the left bulbus directed to left. The MRI revealed bilateral thalamic and left midbrain ischemic lesions. The brainstem auditory and visual evoked responses were normally configured. Optokinetic nystagmus test found rightward, upward and downward hypometric saccades, convergence-retraction nystagmus - which was not visible at physical neurological examination - saccadic smooth pursuit eye movement and pseudoabducent palsy on both sides. The complex gaze disturbance was attributed to the lesions in the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus and in the pretectal and rostromedial tegmentum of the mesencephalon. Infarcts may have been due to a variant artery: i.e. the thalamoperforant and the superior paramedian mesencephalic arteries originate with common branch from one of the communicant basilar artery. The authors discuss the mechanism of complex gaze palsy and call attention to the diagnostic value of optokinetic nystagmus examination.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[CONGRESS CALENDAR]

[Congress calendar 2006;59(05-06)]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Tünde Csépány-Zsolt Illés: Clinical neuroimmunology]

VÉCSEI László

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Clinical Neuroscience

Retrospective comparison of efficacy of levetiracetam and lacosamide add-on treatments in patients with partial onset seizure

ACAR Türkan, ARAS Guzey Yesim

Objective - The study aims to retrospectively compare the efficacy of lacosamide (LCS) and levetiracetam (LEV) in add-on treatment in patients with partial-onset epilepsy. Material and method - Patients who have been followed-up for at least one year due to diagnosis of partial epilepsy between September 2014 and December 2017 and who had no seizure control, despite using at least two antiepileptic monotherapies, and therefore undergone LEV or LCS add-on treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Of the patients, total number of seizures and seizure control rates 6 months before and 3 and 6 months after the add-on treatment were compared. Results - There was no statistically significant difference between the 30 patients in the LEV group (12 females, 18 males, mean age 29.7±6.6) and 28 patients in the LCS group (12 females, 16 males, mean age 28.2±6.4) in terms of age, gender and the duration of illness. When the LEV and LCS groups were evaluated separately, the mean number of seizures within 3 and 6 months after the add- on treatment were significantly lower than the mean number of seizures in the last 6 months before the add-on treatment (p<0.005 and p<0.005 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups when compared with each other in terms of the rate of decrease in number of seizures and seizure control before and after the add-on treatment (p=0.445 and p=0.238, respectively). Conclusion - LCS appears to be as effective as the currently well-established LEV in the treatment of partial onset seizures. No comparative study was found in the literature similar to this subject matter. There is a need for prospective studies for the comparison of the efficacies of these two drugs.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Is it necessary? - Opinions and experiences about a first aid programme for children - pilot study]

BÁNFAI Bálint, PANDUR Attila, SCHISZLER Bence, RADNAI Balázs, BÁNFAI-CSONKA Henrietta, BETLEHEM József

[INTRODUCTION - Starting first aid education in early childhood can be an effective method of knowledge transfer. AIM - Our aim was to examine first aid education related opinions of kindergarten- and primary school children, educators, and parents. MATERIALS AND METHODS - 871 people (children, educators, parents) were involved in our study. Opinions were measured with self-administered questionnaires, containing mainly open questions. RESULTS - General opinion of parents and educators on first aid education in childhood were mainly positive, but they also gave negative ones. The majority of participants had a positive opinion about our completed program. Based on the opinions of parents and educators first aid education is recommended by health care professionals. Opinions were independent from gender, age, lenght of time of working with children in all cases (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS - General opinion of parents and educators was varied, but it was generally positive concerning our program. Based on this results opinions can be changed with concrete activities. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[10 years, 600 monitoring sessions - our experience with the video EEG monitoring of children]

SIEGLER Zsuzsa, HEGYI Márta, JAKUS Rita, NEUWIRTH Magda, PARAICZ Éva, SZABÓ Léna, FOGARASI András

[Introduction- The only Hungarian video EEG laboratorywhere children of ages 0-18 can be continuously monitoredfor several days was opened 1 June 2001 at Department ofNeurology of Bethesda Children’s Hospital.Objectives- Summarizing our 10 years of experience withthe video EEG monitoring (VEM) of children and defining theplace of VEM in the treatment of childhood epilepsy inHungary.Patients and methods- We have processed data from 597monitoring sessions on 541 patients between June 1, 2001and 31 May, 2011 based on our database and the detailedsummaries of the procedures. Results- 509 patients were under the age of 18. The average length of the sessions was 3.1 days. We haveobserved habitual episodes or episodes in question in 477(80%) sessions. 241 (40%) sessions were requested with anepilepsy surgery indication, and 74 patients had 84 opera-tions. 356 (60%) were requested with a differential diagnosisindication, and 191 (53%) cases of epilepsy werediagnosed. We most commonly diagnosed symptomaticgeneralized epilepsy (57 cases). In 165 sessions the episodein question was not diagnosed as epilepsy. Among theparoxysmal episodes we have identified events ofpsychogenic origin, movement disorders, sleep disordersand behavioral disorders. Only 3% of the differential diag-nosis procedures brought no additional clinical information.Discussion- The diagnostic efficiency in our VEM laborato-ry is in accordance with the data found in the literature.Besides epilepsy surgery VEM is recommended if suspectedepileptic episodes occur and interictal epileptiform signs arenot present or are not in accordance with the symptoms, ifthere is no explanation for therapy resistance and if paroxys-mal episodes of non-epileptic origin are suspected but theycannot be identified based on the anamnesis. VEM is also helpful in diagnosing subtle seizures. The procedure hasnumerous additional benefits in patient care and in trainingthe parents and hospital staff. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The malnutrition and the possibilities of its therapy in childhood]

GELENCSÉR Erzsébet

[Malnutrition is a very important clinical condition in pediatrics. However, undernutrition as negative impact on length hospital stay, risk of infection and health care costs. Moerver, it also effects the cognitive development of children. STONG is an easy-to use screening tool that can be recorded in a few minutes, and it does not require special knowledge measurement or follow-up. In Kaposi Mór Hospital (Kaposvár) the risk of malnutrition was assessed by STRONG nutritonal risk screening tool in 31 patient of child-gastroenterology ambulatory (02.01.2014-30.06.2014). In case of malnutrition counselling and use of special formulas are essential besides evaluating tehe cause of malnutrition.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Isolated systolic hypertension in children and young adults I.]

FARSANG Csaba

[Prevalence of the isolated increase in systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg with normal or low diastolic blood pressure ≤80 mmHg, is defined as isolated systolic hypertension. Its prevalence increases with age up to >90% in patients aged >90 years. Isolated systolic hypertension is also found in the young and the clinical significance of it is still debated. For the therapy, those drugs should be used which have a license for use in children: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT-1 receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers beta-blockers and diuretics and their combinations. The young adults with isolated systolic hypertension had a much higher risk of dying from coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease, then the normotensive individuals, and should be treated to normalise their blood pressure. In the elderly and very elderly (>80 yrs), a wealth of data from large clinical trials are available, showing the necessity of treatment mostly with drug combinations - fix-combinations are preferred for increasing the adherence / persistence to therapy. Using diuretics, ACE-inhibitors / ARBs with calcium antagonists, and when needed diuretics and beta-blockers are suggested by recent European guidelines. The target is <140 mmHg, but in octogenarians <150 mmHg. Some studies are pressing for even lower SBP (to around 120 mm Hg), but it seems to be wise to balance advantages / disadvantages, so the optimal SBP may be around 130 mmHg.]