Clinical Neuroscience

[Book review]

MOUSSONG-KOVÁCS Erzsébet

MAY 20, 1993

Clinical Neuroscience - 1993;46(05-06)

[István Hárdi: Health Protection of the Soul. The Present and Future of Mental Health Protection.]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[New data in the classification, diagnostic and in the therapy of cerebrovascular diseases]

NAGY Zoltán

[High stroke morbidity and mortality in Hungary have focused to attention on stroke prevention and the organization of adequate therapy. Up till 1990 both cardiovascular and the cerebrovascular mortality had increased. The Precise analysis risk factors' determines the primary and secondary stroke prevention. The most important issues in of prevention are: proper care of hypertension, gradual change of dietary habits of the Hungarian population, and reduction of smoking. The revised stroke classification, published in 1990 suggested the further breakdown of ischemic strokes into embolic, atherothrombotic and lacunar forms. The new categories reflect the pathomechanism, and thus help in planning more successful treatment. The early treatment of embolic stroke with thrombolysis looks promising, thrombolysis in lacunar stroke implies a certain amount of risk. Hemodilution and dehydration therapy in the treatment of different forms of ischemic strokes need to be evaluated differently. Both invasive and non-invasive diagnostic examinations follow a well thought out algorithmic pattern. Since thrombolysis is a possible therapeutic choice, laboratory tests, especially the analysis of hemostatic factors have gained more significance.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[NMDA antagonists: possible kinetic and neuroprotective effect with special regard to parkinson's disease]

TAKÁTS Annamária

[The role of excitatory amino acids in the pathomechanism of several neuropsychiatric disorders became known in the last few years. Special attention is paid to glutamate, since this has proved to be an excitotoxin under certain pathological conditions. It acts through the ion-channel of the NMDA receptors via enormous Ca++ ion flow into the cell. NMDA antagonists may be of importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by increased glutamate hyperactivity. The clinical use of adamantane derivatives might be suggested because of their possible symptomatic and neuroprotective effect.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Arteriovenous malformation and occlusive cerebrovascular disease]

BODOSI Mihály, KUNCZ Ádám, DÓCZI Tamás, BARZÓ Pál, VÖRÖS Erika

[Five rare case histories of intracranial occlusive cerebrovascular disease with arteriovenous malformation are presented. In 2 cases the middle cerebral artery and in a further 2 cases the internal carotid artery were occluded (3 ipsilateral frontal and 1 parietal angiomas). In the fifth case a temporal angioma and ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery occlusion was detected. In the first 4 cases extra-intracranial arterial bypass was performed before the excision of the malformation. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of PCR in the diagnosis of duchenne/becker muscular dystrophy]

FODOR Flóra, MECHLER Ferenc, DIÓSZEGHY Péter, ÁDÁNY Róza

[The majority of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) cases are caused by deletions affecting exons of the dystrophin gene, which results in defective protein synthesis. In order to detect deletions the multiplex PCR method was utilized on the DNA of 15 DMD/BMD patients by amplifying 9 deletion-prone exons as a first step followed by a further 5 exons when necessary. Delection were found in more than 50% of patients by this method which correlates well with that expected from the literature data. This rapid and reliable method is an important diagnostic tool in the precise characterization of muscular dystrophies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Fibrinogen as a general risk factor in stroke ]

SZIRMAI Imre, KAMONDI Anita

[Fibrinogen and other laboratory variables of 348 patients with various types of stroke were statistically analysed in the acute, subacute and chronic stage of the disease. Seventy two patients with non-vascular disease served as control. The actual level of plasma fibrinogen in cerebrovascular patients was attributed to the following factors: 1. presence of atherosclerotic plaques in extra and intracranial arteries, 2. the time lag between the onset of stroke and laboratory testing, 3. degre of post stroke mobility of the patients. Initial level of fibrinogen is a predictive value of death both in hemorrhagic and ischemic patients. The highest plasma concentration of fibrinogen was found in the atherothrombotic stroke group, in which was a significant negative correlation between the plasma fibrinogen and high density lipoprotein level. It was concluded that fibrinogen is a risk factor in cerebrovascular diseases.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]

KAPRONCZAY Katalin

[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Family planning in multiple sclerosis: conception, pregnancy, breastfeeding]

RÓZSA Csilla

[Family planning is an exceptionally important question in multiple sclerosis, as women of childbearing age are the ones most often affected. Although it is proven that pregnancy does not worsen the long-term prognosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, many patients are still doubtful about having children. This question is further complicated by the fact that patients – and often even doctors – are not sufficiently informed about how the ever-increasing number of available disease-modifying treatments affect pregnancies. Breastfeeding is an even less clear topic. Patients usually look to their neurologists first for answers concerning these matters. It falls to the neurologist to rationally evaluate the risks and benefits of contraception, pregnancy, assisted reproduction, childbirth, breastfeeding and disease modifying treatments, to inform patients about these, and then together come to a decision about the best possible therapeutic approach, taking the patients’ individual family plans into consideration. Here we present a review of relevant literature adhering to international guidelines on the topics of conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, with a special focus on the applicability of approved disease modifying treatments during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The goal of this article is to provide clinicians involved in the care of MS patients with up-to-date information that they can utilize in their day-to-day clinical practice. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dysphagiafelmérések akut stroke-ban]

SZABÓ Pál Tamás, MÛHELYI Viktória, BÉRES-MOLNÁR Katalin Anna, KOVÁCS Andrea, BALOGH Zoltán, FOLYOVICH András

[Stroke associated dysphagia can have serious consequences such as aspiration pneumonia. The Hungarian guideline on nutritional therapy for stroke patients recommends dysphagia assessment, as early screening can optimize disease outcome and hospital cost. Thus far, this may be the first study in Hungarian that has documented a systematic review about the available validated dysphagia assessments of acute stroke. Purpose – The aim of this study was to summarize the instrumentally validated bedside dysphagia screening tools for acute stroke patients, which were published in the last twenty years. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of the validation studies, examine their study design, and sample the sub-tests and the diagnostic accuracy of the assessments. A systematic research was carried out of the literature between 2001 and 2021 in eight scientific databases with search terms appropriate to our objectives. Subjects of the study – 652 articles were found and were reduced to eight. We made a comparative analysis of these. The GUSS test reached a high level of sensitivity compared to the others. In our study sample, the prevalence of instrumentally confirmed dysphagia among acute stroke patients was 56.1%. The focus and the composition of the analyzed studies differed and posed problems such as the ambiguity of the concept of dysphagia, the difference in outcome indicators, or the timing of screening. The GUSS test, which offers domestic management, is a suitable tool for the Hungarian clinical use.]

Ezt olvasta már?

OKT 28.

OKT 28.