Clinical Neuroscience

[Book review]

JULY 01, 1968

Clinical Neuroscience - 1968;21(07)

[Szerző ismerteti J. Gerlach, - P. Jensen, W. Koos, H. Kraus, Pediatric Neurosurgery. With clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis in pediatrics and neurology című könyvét.]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Transient electroencephalographic phenomena in the generalisalt spike-wave pattern and the so-called grand mal type ictal generalisalt repetitive spasm discharge ]

HALÁSZ Péter, VELOK Gyula, HIDASI József, BOCZÁN Gábor

[In search of an answer to the pathophysiological reasons for the difference between petit mal and grand mal mechanism, we described four patients with intertwined generalized spike-wave mechanism and generalized repetitive spasm; two cases with 3 c/s spike-wave mechanism within an ictus and two cases with 3 c/s spike-wave mechanism within an ictus. two spike-wave variants during two different types of seizures in the same patient. From our observations the following findings can be filtered. 1. Transitory EEG phenomena can be detected between the ictal electrographic phenomena of petit mal with spike-wave and grand mal seizures with repetitive rapid discharge. 2. We can confirm Gastaut's observations that in epileptic encephalopathies with some spike-wave variants, repetitive rapid discharge tonic seizures with mild motor symptoms and significant vegetative symptoms are frequently observed in sleep. 3. Sleep - both natural and Evipan anaesthesia - and benzodiazepine preparations also contribute to the appearance of transient phenomena. On the basis of our electrographic observations, the spike wave mechanism and the previously discovered facts about the neuronal mechanism of grand mal repetitive rapid discharge (Pollen 1964, Matsumoto and Ajmone Marsan 1964) and the interneuronal recurrent collateral inhibition shown to be crucial in rhythmic EEG phenomena (Eccles 1965), we attempt to provide a unified view of the grand mal and petit mal mechanism and to explain the electrographic and clinical differences.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The structure and dynamics of resistance in psychotherapy in psychotherapy groups]

HIDAS György

[In psychotherapy, resistance is present all the time with varying intensity. It is also an obstacle to psychotherapeutic change, but it provides valuable insights into the resistance mechanisms, character and history of the participants in the process, as well as their present functions. Experience has shown that the recognition and discussion of resistance moves the psychotherapeutic process forward towards improvement, positive change and dissolves the current form of resistance. Since the cause of resistance is often not exclusively in the individual, but often in the family, it logically follows that family or couple therapy is necessary. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The effect of labyrinth stimulation on cerebellar blood flow]

POÓR Gyula, KOPA János, MOLNÁR László

[Authors investigated the effect of stimuli from the semicircular arcuate ducts of the labyrinth on cerebellar blood flow in rabbits. The flow was studied using an electrical system based on the negative feed-back principle, which allows the measurement of the change in thermoconductivity. In chloralose-urethane narcosis, changes in general blood pressure and respiration were simultaneously recorded, as well as electrical activity and blood flow in the cerebellar cortex. On stimulation of one side of the labyrinth with cold water, an increase in blood flow was found in the opposite cerebellar cortex and a decrease in the same side; on warm stimulation the change was reversed. Galvanic stimulation resulted in a biphasic change. Rotation increased blood flow in both cerebellar hemispheres, and this remained unchanged after bilateral transection of the vago-sympathicus, and became more pronounced and prolonged after KCl was dripped onto the cerebral cortex. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Analysis of the arginine content of liquid protein components]

SZILÁGYI A. Katalin

[The Vorfractione of CSF contains much higher amounts of arginine than the other protein components of CSF. CSF albumin is arginine-poor. This finding, together with previous observations on the spatial distribution of arginine and Vorfractio in CSF, suggests that metabolic processes may occur between the two substances in the CNS. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[In patients with Dupuytren's contracture electroclinical studies ]

SZENDRŐI Mária, HASZNOS Tivadar, GALAMBOS József

[The authors performed detailed neurological examinations in 50 patients with Dupuytren's contracture; they also determined the conduction velocity of the motor fibres of the ulnar nerve in 23 patients. The mild clinical symptoms and the decrease in conduction velocity suggest that ulnar nerve lacunar lesions are involved in the pathogenesis of Dupuytren's contracture. In this sense, they evaluate 5 cases of their patients in which the symptoms of circumscribed ulnar nerve laesio were followed shortly by the appearance of Dupuytren's contractura. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]

KAPRONCZAY Katalin

[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Non-pharmacological prevention and treatment for postoperative delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture - a systematic review]

VIDA Nóra, PAPP László

[Delirium is defined as a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that develops over a short period of time and fluctuates over time. During the last decade, the number of publications dealing with different aspects of delirium have been grown. The key points in most articles are pharmacological prevention and treatment, but because the rise of health care expenditures, all activities, which cost-effectively support the care process, is getting more and more important. The aim of the study: The aim of this research is to review the non-pharmacological prevention and treatment possibilities of delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. Systematic review, using articles published between 1999 and 2019 in PubMed and Wiley Online Libraries. Non-pharmacologic treatments significantly reduced the incidence (p=0.003–0.045) and duration (p=0.009–0.03) of delirium. The interventions also contributed to decrease the number of episodes (p=0.03), and to make the symptoms lighter. Early mobilisation and adequate fluid and electrolyte intake are key factors in reducing the incidence of delirium. Measuring oxygen saturation and support, appropriate nutrition, effective pain treatment, minimizing drug-interactions, maintaining good sleep and managing sensory dysfunctions have an effect on incidence, duration and severity of delirium.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neuropsychological rehabilitation following acquired brain injury]

TAMÁS Viktória, KOVÁCS Noémi, TASNÁDI Emese

[Neuropsychological rehabilitation or rehabilitation neuropsychology is a field within applied neuropsychology. It originally diverges from applied clinical and functional neuropsychology, although it could not be entirely differed from them. The unique nature of this area over the complexity is given by its process-controlled and system-approach aspects. In Hungary the number of neurorehabilitation centres and departments requiring neurocognitive rehabilitation has been continually increasing. Nevertheless, the number is still low; accordingly in our country this field is relatively young and isn’t well known. Authors of this review would like to draw attention to the importance of rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain injury and improvement of their quality of life with the theoretical and practical knowledge, as well as the necessity of future alterations and challenges emphasizing the need of a significant change of this narrow domain. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dysphagiafelmérések akut stroke-ban]

SZABÓ Pál Tamás, MÛHELYI Viktória, BÉRES-MOLNÁR Katalin Anna, KOVÁCS Andrea, BALOGH Zoltán, FOLYOVICH András

[Stroke associated dysphagia can have serious consequences such as aspiration pneumonia. The Hungarian guideline on nutritional therapy for stroke patients recommends dysphagia assessment, as early screening can optimize disease outcome and hospital cost. Thus far, this may be the first study in Hungarian that has documented a systematic review about the available validated dysphagia assessments of acute stroke. Purpose – The aim of this study was to summarize the instrumentally validated bedside dysphagia screening tools for acute stroke patients, which were published in the last twenty years. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of the validation studies, examine their study design, and sample the sub-tests and the diagnostic accuracy of the assessments. A systematic research was carried out of the literature between 2001 and 2021 in eight scientific databases with search terms appropriate to our objectives. Subjects of the study – 652 articles were found and were reduced to eight. We made a comparative analysis of these. The GUSS test reached a high level of sensitivity compared to the others. In our study sample, the prevalence of instrumentally confirmed dysphagia among acute stroke patients was 56.1%. The focus and the composition of the analyzed studies differed and posed problems such as the ambiguity of the concept of dysphagia, the difference in outcome indicators, or the timing of screening. The GUSS test, which offers domestic management, is a suitable tool for the Hungarian clinical use.]