Clinical Neuroscience

[Approach to the generating centre of Nystagmus alternans using a drug body]

BODÓ György1

SEPTEMBER 01, 1961

Clinical Neuroscience - 1961;14(09)

[Barbiturate and chlorpromazine temporarily eliminate the alternans of nystagmus. During the barbiturate effect, nystagmus can be induced in such patients by caloric stimulation, whereas during the chlorpromazine effect, no caloric reaction can be induced. From these observations it can be concluded that the generating centre of nystagmus alternans is located over the primary vestibular reflex.]


  1. Magyar Néphadsereg Egészségügyi Szolgálata



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious myelitis ]

I. L. Benykovics

[The case histories we have reported have clearly demonstrated that often a wrong diagnosis is made, especially in the case of spinal tumours, as they do not analyse the course of the disease properly, do not study the dynamics of the CSF condition, do not use modern methods of treating inflammatory processes and, after not obtaining good results with their treatment, send the patient to the Neurological Clinic, thus missing a very important time factor: as a consequence, the patient does not receive the right treatment in time. We need to underline the importance of timely high-dose antibiotic treatment, including lumbar administration in the acute phase of the disease. In addition to antibiotics, of course, we must also use the other treatment methods that we have used in the cases we have reported. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Polyneuritism and neuroparalytic ornithosis]

PAP Zoltán, MÜNNICH Dénes

[The authors describe the case of a 47-year-old male pigeon fancier who contracted ornithosis while handling sick pigeons.Symptoms include: fever with chills, fever lasting for weeks, first continuous and then relapsing, atypical viral pneumonia, polyneuritis, peripheral nerve palsies, arthritis, roseola-like rash and scaly scales. The central nervous system remained intact, consciousness clear throughout. On treatment with Tetran, Hostacyclin, Aureomycin and Chlorocid the patient recovered, the polyneuritis resolved, only the radial and median paralysis remained unchanged. Diagnostic evaluation of the complement fixation reaction was undertaken. They draw attention to the infestation of the domestic poultry flock and the increasing threat of human ornithosis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Impaired time estimation and cochleo-vestibular dysfunctio due to industrial poisoning]

ORBÁN Lajos, LÁNG Istvánné

[Both our chemical screening tests and symptoms observed during toxic illness in chemical workers showed signs of central vestibular impairment. The two cases described are special because, on the one hand, both cases of toxic damage were associated with impaired time estimation and, on the other hand, in contrast to the increased reflex sensitivity observed in otoneurological examinations, we found a rare pathology of bilateral hypofunctio in the first case and central cochleovestibular damage in the second. These findings suggest that the symptoms of chemical toxicity can be very diverse and that otovestibular and neurological examinations complement and support each other in the recognition of multicentral lesions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Glutamic acid oxaloacetic acid transaminase determinations in infants and children neurological diseases]


[Glutamic acid oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activity was determined in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum of our infant and pediatric neurological cases. We detected hyperactivity mainly in CSF, occasionally in sacral, especially generalized sacral, chorea rheumatica and hydrocephalus. In the latter, we followed the course of the disease by repeated tests in the CSF. Our studies showed that ferment activity was increased only in cases of severe hydrocephalus and only in certain phases, probably during periods of progression. There was no regular correlation between GOT activity, clinical picture and other laboratory findings, in general only enzyme activity was suggestive of an abnormal brain process. We discussed the mechanism of the increase in ferment activity and, in addition to the well-known factors, we also attributed a role to the histologically detected hypoxic state of brain tissue. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Unconditional and conditional alpha rhythm inhibition interoceptive stimuli in humans]


[Rectally applied intestinal ginger produces electrographic activation in the form of inhibition of alpha waves in humans. This response can be elicited; when associated with a conditional light stimulus, the gut stimulus can induce conditional interoceptive alpha-rhythm inhibition. After 4 to 16 associations of the rectal and light fingers, a conditional interoceptive "wake-up" response occurs, which can be easily extinguished without reinforcement and rebuilt by further associations.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Electrophysiological investigation for autonomic dysfunction in patients with myasthenia gravis: A prospective study


Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autonomic dysfunction is not a commonly known association with MG. We conducted this study to evaluate autonomic functions in MG & subgroups and to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study comprised 30 autoimmune MG patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Autonomic tests including sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation analysis (RRIV) was carried out. The tests were performed two times for patients who were under acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during the current assessment. The RRIV rise during hyperventilation was better (p=0.006) and Valsalva ratio (p=0.039) was lower in control group. The SSR amplitudes were lower thereafter drug intake (p=0.030). As much as time went by after drug administration prolonged SSR latencies were obtained (p=0.043).Valsalva ratio was lower in the AchR antibody negative group (p=0.033). The findings showed that both ocular/generalized MG patients have a subclinical parasympathetic abnormality prominent in the AchR antibody negative group and pyridostigmine has a peripheral sympathetic cholinergic noncumulative effect.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis and treatment of microvascular coronary heart disease. Specialities of conditions in Hungary]


[Invasive investigations show that in two-thirds of patients the myocardial ischaemia persists without obstructive coronary disease and any other heart conditions (INOCA). The underlying cause may be microvascular dysfunction (CMD) with consecutive microvascular coronary disease (MVD) and microvascular or epicardial vasospastic angina (MVA). The modern practice of clinical cardiology while using the developed non-invasive cardiac imaging permits exact measuring of the coronary flow with its characteristic indices. All of these improve the diagnosing of CMD-induced myocardial ischemia and provide opportunity to determine primary MVD cases. Since the recognition and treatment of MVD is significantly underrep­resented in the Hungarian medical care, the primary stable microvascular angina (MVA) is described in detail below with its modern invasive and non-invasive differential diagnosis and treatment, concerning especially its frequency provoked by high blood pressure and female coronary heart diseases. There are highlighted all recommended diagnostic procedures available under domestic conditions.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Focus on Lege Artis Medicinae (LAM)]

VASAS Lívia, GEGES József

[Three decades ago, LAM was launched with the goal of providing scientific information about medicine and its frontiers. From the very beginning, LAM has also concerned a special subject area while connecting medicine with the world of art. In the palette of medical articles, it remained a special feature to this day. The analysis of the history of LAM to date was performed using internationally accepted publication guidelines and scientific databases as a pledge of objectivity. We examined the practice of LAM if it meets the main criteria, the professional expectations of our days, when publishing contents of the traditional printed edition and its electronic version. We explored the visibility of articles in the largest bibliographic and scientific metric databases, and reviewed the LAM's place among the Hun­ga­rian professional journals. Our results show that in recent years LAM has gained international reputation des­pite publishing in Hungarian spoken by a few people. This is due to articles with foreign co-authors as well as references to LAM in articles written exclusively by foreign researchers. The journal is of course full readable in the Hungarian bibliographic databases, and its popularity is among the leading ones. The great virtue of the journal is the wide spectrum of the authors' affiliation, with which they cover almost completely the Hungarian health care institutional sys­tem. The special feature of its columns is enhanced by the publication of writings on art, which may increase Hungarian and foreign interest like that of medical articles.]