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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2016

[Systemic thrombolysis and endovascular intervention in postpartum stroke]


[Introduction - There are no previously published cases about intravenously applied recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke during puerperium. Case presentation - We report a 40-year-old woman with postpartum acute ischemic stroke caused by multiple cervical artery dissections treated by systemic thrombolysis and endovascular intervention. Discussion - There are only limited data regarding thrombolytic treatment in acute stroke during pregnancy and puerperium. Current acute stroke treatment guidelines - while considering pregnancy as a relative exclusion criterion - do not deal with the postpartum state. Conclusion - As the condition is rare, randomized controlled trials are not feasible, therefore further reports on similar cases could eventually help us suggest guidelines or at least propose recommendations for the acute thrombolytic treatment of strokes occurring in pregnancy and puerperium.]

Hypertension and nephrology

OCTOBER 23, 2019

[Blood pressure management for stroke prevention and in the acute stroke. The new guideline of European Society of Hypertension (ESH, 2018), European Society of Cardiology and Hungarian Society of Hypertension (HSH, 2018)]

JENEI Zoltán

[Hypertension is the leading modifiable risk factor for stroke. Its prevalence amongst stroke patient is about 60-70% and the benefit of blood pressure (BP) lowering therapy on stroke risk reduction is well established. However the optimal BP targets for preventing stroke and reducing stroke consequences have been controversial. The new European (ESC/ESH) and Hungarian (HSH) hypertension guideline published in 2018 highlighted the primary and secondary prevention of stroke and the BP management in the acute stroke care as well. According results from ACCORD, SPRINT, HOPE-3, and other metaanalysis the systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering < 120 mmHg has not favourable effect, thus in hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg. In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). In patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage careful acute BP lowering with iv. therapy, to <180 mmHg should be considered only in case of SBP ≥ 220 mmHg (IIaB). In patients with acute ischaemic stroke who are eligible for iv. thrombolysis, BP should be carefully lowered and maintained to < 180/105 mmHg for at least the first 24 h after thrombolysis (IIaB). If the patient is not eli gible for lysis and BP ≤ 220/110 mmHg, routine BP lowering drug therapy is not recommended inside 48-72 h (IA). In patients with markedly elevated BP > 220/110 mmHg who do not receive fibrinolysis, drug therapy may be considered, based on clinical judgement, to reduce BP by 15% during the first 24 h after the stroke onset (IIbC). After 72 h of acute stroke in case of hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg (IIaB). In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). If BP < 140/90 mmHg after stroke, the BP lowering should be considered (IIbA). It is recommended to initiate an antihypertensive treatment with combination, preferably single pill combination of renin-angiotensin system blockers plus a calcium channel blocker and/or a thiazide like diuretics (IA). Lowering SBP < 120 mmHg is not recommended due to advers events regardless of age and type of stroke either in primary or secondary stroke prevention.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2018

Is stroke indeed a “Monday morning disease”?


Introduction - The therapeutic time window of acute stroke is short. Decision on the use of intravenous thrombolysis is based on well-defined criteria. Any delay in the transport to a designated stroke centre decreases the odds of therapeutic success. In Hungary, the admission rate of stroke patients peaks on Monday, the number gradually decreasing by the end of the week. This phenomenon has long been suggested to be due to the lack of emergency care approach. According to the literature, however, returning to work following a holiday is a risk factor for acute stroke. A similar phenomenon is well-known in veterinary medicine, a condition in horses referred to as ‘Monday morning disease’. In our study, we analysed the distribution of admissions due to acute stroke by the day of the week in 4 independent data sources. Patients and methods - The number of patients admitted to the Szent János Hospital, Budapest, Hungary with stroke and that of emergency ambulance transports in the whole city of Budapest due to acute stroke were analysed in the period between January 1 and March 31, 2009. The distribution of thrombolytic interventions reflecting hospitalizations for hyperacute stroke was analysed based on data of the Szent János Hospital in 2009-2012, and on national data from 2006-2012. Descriptive statistics was used to present the data. The variation between daily admission was compared by chi-square test. Results - The proportion of daily admission of stroke patients admitted to the Szent János Hospital was the highest at the beginning of the week (18% on Monday, and 21% on Tuesday) and the lowest on the weekend (9% and 9% on Saturday and Sunday, respectively). The distribution of ambulance transports in Budapest due to acute stroke tended to be similar (15% and 15% on Monday and Tuesday, whereas 13% and 12% on Saturday and Sunday, respectively) on different days of the week. No such Monday peak could be observed in a single centre regarding thrombolytic interventions: 18% and 19% of the total of 80 thrombolytic interventions in the Szent János Hospital were performed on Monday and Sunday, respectively. At the national level the higher Monday rate is obvious: during a 7-year period 16.0%, 12.7%, and 13.5% of all thrombolytic interventions in Hungary were performed on Monday, Saturday and Sunday, respectively. Conclusion - Monday preference of stroke is not exclusively caused by the lack of emergency care approach, and the phenomenon is not consistent at the individual hospital level in cases undergoing thrombolysis.

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2018

[Clinical neurophysiological methods in diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases]

NAGY Ildikó, FABÓ Dániel

[Neurophysiological methods are gaining ground in the diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular disease. While the role of the EEG (electroencephalography) in the diagnosis of post-stroke epilepsy is constant, quantitative EEG para-meters, as new indicators of early efficiency after thrombolysis or in prognosis of patient’s condition have proved their effectiveness in several clinical studies. In intensive care units, continuous EEG monitoring of critically ill patients became part of neurointenzive care protocols. SSEP (somatosesnsory evoked potencial) and EEG performed during carotid endarterectomy, are early indicative intraoperativ neuromonitoring methods of poor outcome. Neurorehabilitation is a newly discovered area of neurophysiology. Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Brain computer interface mark the onset of modern rehabi-litation, where the function deficit is replaced by robotic tehnology. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2017

[Systemic thrombolysis after the administration of idarucizumab in acute ischemic stroke]


[Introduction - Expanding indications have resulted in an increasing number of patients taking novel oral anticoagulants, posing a major treatment dilemma in acute ischemic stroke. Case presentation - We present a successful intravenous thrombolysis in a dabigatran-treated patient with acute ischemic stroke after the administration of idarucizumab. Discussion - According to current guidelines, systemic thrombolysis is contraindicated under treatment with novel oral anticoagulants (taken within 48 hours). In this scenario, idarucizumab offers a solution by reversing the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran. Conclusion - Although there have only been case reports published so far, the dabigatran-antidote idarucizumab seems to give new therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2017

[Non-contrast brain ct based systemic thrombolysis of two wake up ischemic stroke patients in rural settings]

POZSEGOVITS Krisztián, RENCZ László, CSÚSZ Lajos, SZABÓ Géza

[Background and presentation - Conventionally the acute ischemic stroke patients who wake up with symptomes (WUS - wake up stroke) cannot benefit from systemic thrombolysis due to the uncertainty of the exact onset time of the cerebrovascular event. Perfusion brain imaging could be used as patient selection tool but the method is not available in many settings. Simple non-contrast CT scan is easily accessible and reliable as it shows the different stages of the evolving ischemia with high accuracy. Early brain CT scan results of WUS patients have the same characteristics as the ones who are surely within therapeutic window. The intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) of WUS patients seems to be similarly successful as the ones with known onset time, the treatment does not come with excess complications, higher rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was not found in previous reports. Purpose - In this report we present two systemic thrombolysis cases of acute ischemic stroke patients who woke up with stroke symptoms. Methods - In 2014 and 2015 we performed systemic thrombolysis for one wake up stroke patients, respectively. Both patients had large vessel occlusion. Indication was based on favourable non-contrast brain CT scan results. Results - Treatment of these two patients with rTPA proved to be safe, no hemorrhage occurred after treatment. Conclusion - We presented two acute ischemic stroke patients with symptomes at early wake up who were treated intravenously with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator based on non-contrast CT alone without complications and some moderate improvement at 90 days in the settings of a rural town hospital in a middle income country.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 20, 2017

[Thrombolysis in case of ischemic stroke caused by aortic dissection]

LANTOS Judit, NAGY Albert, HEGEDŰS Zoltán, BIHARI Katalin

[Seldom, an acute aortic dissection can be the etiology of an acute ischemic stroke. The aortic dissection typically presents with severe chest pain, but in pain-free dissection, which ranges between 5-15% of the case, the neurological symptoms can obscure the sypmtos of the dissection. By the statistical data, there are 15-20 similar cases in Hungary in a year. In this study we present the case history of an acute ischemic stroke caused by aortic dissection, which is the first hungarian publication in this topic. A 59-year-old man was addmitted with right-gaze-deviation, acute left-sided weakness, left central facial palsy and dysarthric speech. An acute right side ischemic stroke was diagnosed by physical examination without syptoms of acute aortic dissection. Because, according to the protocol it was not contraindicated, a systemic intravenous thrombolysis was performed. The neurological sypmtoms disappeared and there were no complication or hypodensity on the brain computed tomography (CT). 36 hours after the thrombolysis, the patient become restlessness and hypoxic with back pain, without neurological abnormality. A chest CT was performed because of the suspition of the aortic dissection, and a Stanford-A type dissection was verified. After the acute aortic arch reconstruction the patient died, but there was no bleeding complication at the dissection site caused by the thrombolysis. This case report draws attention to the fact that aortic dissection can cause acute ischemic stroke. Although it is difficult to prove it retrospectively, we think the aortic dissection, without causing any symptoms or complain, had already been present before the stroke. In our opinion both the history of our patient and literature reviews confirms that in acute stroke the thrombolysis had no complication effect on the aortic dissection but ceased the neurological symptoms. If the dissection had been diagnosed before the thrombolysis, the aortic arch reconstruction would have been the first step of the treatment, without thrombolysis. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2016

[Angioneuritic edema in ischaemic stroke patients treated with rt-PA]


[Data of our 254 patients who were treated with rt-PA between 1st of Jan, 2011 and 31st of Dec, 2014 were processed. We focused on angioneurotic oedema as allergic complication of thrombolysis which caused life threatening respiratory obstruction in two cases. We describe these two patients’ history. Out of 254 patients six (2.3%) suffered angioneurotic edema caused respiratory obstruction in two (0.90%) cases. This occurrence is approximately 1.3-5.1% in literature. Five, out of six patients who suffered from angioneurotic oedema, had been treated with ACE inhibitors or ARB before. The role of ACE inhibitors is known in metabolism of bradykinin cascade. Plasmin which present during thrombolysis, precipitates biochemical mechanisms of this potential life threatening complication. Therefore rt-PA alone can be the cause of angioedema, but it can be more frequent together with ACE inhibitors therapy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2011

[The use of carvedilol following invasive interventions]


[The primary goals of the treatment of AMI are to rapidly open - either mechanically or by thrombolysis - the blocked blood vessel and to keep it open. Restarting of the blood flow in blocked vessels results in an increased load in volume, pressure and metabolism in the blood vessel's supply area, which triggers the activation of a pathophysiological cascade. Pathophysiological processes accompanying the opening of the blood vessel include activation of catecholamines, RAS and neutrophils and subsequent free radical production, and increases in the levels of proinflammatory citokines and intracellular CA levels, that is, the so called oxygen paradox. The above mentioned processes can be blocked by beta receptor blockers (BRB) as demonstrated by class I, type A evidence. A number of clinical studies have shown their clinical efficiency following PCI. The PAMI, StentPAMI, AirPAMI and CADILLAC studies have proved that BRBs decrease mortality and morbidity after the intervention. The third-generation BRB carvedilol, which acts as a beta and alpha blocker in patients with STEMI successfully treated with PCI, and is also a Ca-channel blocker and a free radical trap, is the firstchoice agent for both theoretical and clinical reasons. Animal studies have shown that carvedilol results in greater reductions in the levels of markers indicating postinfarction reperfusion and ventricular remodeling (MCP1, MMP2, TIMP2) compared with metoprolol. Animal studies have also showed that carvedilol is the most efficient BRB for preventing the damaging of gap junction structure in reperfusion, and for inhibiting the ventricular arrhythmias induced by reperfusion, through restoring connexin 43. The beneficial effect of this drug on the cardiovascular events and mortality following myocardial infarction have been demonstrated in a number of human studies with hard endpoints. The unique efficiency of carvedilol in vascular prevention following PCI has been demonstrated by the short-term and longterm efficiency of carvedilol-filled stents, compared with BMSE-filled stents. Information on the postintervention, long-term (3-year) efficiency of carvedilol in a large (N :7500) patient group is expected to be published in 2015 in the CAPITAL-RCT study coordinated by the University of Kyoto. In summary, the results of experimental and clinical studies on carvedilol have shown that within the BRB group, carvedilol is highly recommended for the prevention of oxygen paradox following successful PCI and preserving the myocardium.]

Hungarian Radiology

JUNE 10, 2005

[The possibilities of invasive radiological therapy of deep venous thrombosis and in vitro experimental examination of therapeutic factors affecting the treatment]


[INTRODUCTION - The first part of this paper is an overview on the possibilities of invasive radiology treatment of deep venous thrombosis. In the next part an in vitro experiment is described demonstrating the basics of mechanical and pharmaco-mechanical catheters applied in deep venous thrombosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS - The in vitro haemodinamic model of the iliocaval veins contained a thermostat and an engine responsable for pulsing circulation according to the venous system. We tested the chance of driftage of thrombus in different age according to the state of the collateral system. Thrombectomy was made by mechanical (Simpson-catheter) and pharmaco-mechanical (Pulsespray catheter) ways. The weight of the non-drifted thrombi was measured. RESULTS - All the 16 thrombus were flown while collateral system was closed and none of them were flown while the collateral system was open but the rate of their solubility was different. The efficacy of the thrombus-removal by Simpson catheter was better than by Pulse-spray catheter and fresh thrombus-fragments were more soluble than older ones. CONCLUSION - By this in vitro experiment we opened the way for using mechanical and pharmaco-mechanical catheters in deep venous thrombosis.]