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Lege Artis Medicinae

APRIL 18, 2020

[Digitally-assisted treatment planning in precision oncology]


[The progress of molecular information based on personalized precision medicine has reached a new milestone. Actually, about 6 million mutations of 600 genes may be related to the development of cancer, and on average, 3-4 of these “driver” mutations are present in each patient. Due to the progress in molecular diagnostics, we can now routinely identify the molecular profile of tumors in clinical settings. By clinical translation, there are actually available more than 125 targeted pharmaceuticals and hundreds of such therapies are under clinical trial. As a result, we have many first-line and licenced treatment options to be elected by molecular information as the optimal one for every patient. There is an increasing need for complex informatics solutions by medical software. Geneticists, molecular biologists, molecular pathologists, molecular pharmacologists are already using bioinformatics and interpretation software on their daily work. Today, online digital tools of artificial intelligence are also available for physicians for assisted treatment planning. Telemedicine, videoconferencing provide solutions for interdisciplinary virtual molecular tumor boards, which democratizes the access to precision oncology for all doctors and patients. ]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 10, 2019

[Metals and cancer]

VETLÉNYI Enikő, RÁCZ Gergely

[We often tend to forget about our environment when looking for the origin of a disease. Inhaled air, drinking water and food, substances in contact with the skin all have an effect on the human body. Metals are indispensable parts of our everyday lives, their mining, processing and use cause a continuous exposure to them. Metal exert their effects on the body in various ways. Many of them are essential for maintaining homeostasis, but excessive or harmful metal intake can lead to health damage, including tumour formation through multiple attack points. Metals substitute each other during different transport processes and in the structure of proteins, they cause oxidative stress and bind to DNA, thereby damaging it. Applying them appropriately, the proapoptotic effect of the metal compounds is brought to the fore, thus becoming a therapeutic tool for tumours. Nowadays, platinum(II) compounds are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents and there are many ongoing studies to fi nd metal compounds with an ideal therapeutic and side-effect profi le. The aims of this article were to draw the attention to the dangers of metals in relation to cancer and to highlight their diverse application possibilities in current and future cancer therapy and diagnostics.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2021

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

JUNE 30, 2020

[Examination of Parental Treatment among Outgoing Ambulance Workers]


[The development of the family, family relations and family socialization play a decisive role in becoming an adult and in the development of later forms of behavior. Parental treatment is closely related to problem-solving skills, which is why they can influence adequate responses to unexpected situations in ambulance care. The aim of the study: to explore and analyze the parental attitudes and behaviors that emerged during the upbringing of outgoing ambulance workers and can be related to the demographic, socio-economic characteristics of the study sample, as well as work, workplace and health behaviors. The survey was conducted between the employees of the National Ambulance Service and the participants of the National Ambulance Professional Section of the HHCP. In addition to demographic, workplace, and health status questions, the authors surveyed a shortened, 23-question version of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (s-EMBU) questionnaire developed by Perris et al. SPSS version 25.0 was used for statistical analyses. Types of analyses included descriptive statistics, two-sample t-test, correlation calculation, analysis of variance. The authors found striking correlations between religion, especially school graduation and female gender, as well as restrictive and gay parental treatment. The maternal rejection and paternal overprotection have been shown to be prominent among people those working in the capital, with the correlation that the “diversity” provided by the big city is particularly conducive to breakaway behavior and good social relationships. The parental restriction, as one of the characteristic parental behaviors revealed in our research, and its positive relationship with religiosity and higher school graduation in the part of Emergency Medical officers who work in higher positions raises the possibility that the professional appearance of helping and life-saving activities is influenced by religiosity and the resulting development of moral and social sensitivity during upbringing. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

APRIL 30, 2020

[Florence Nightingale’s life and work – Florence Nightingale’s message for Today’s Nursing Students]

SEBESTYÉN Anett Katalin

[The International Nurses Day is organized every year on May 12. This year is special, because Florence Nightingale, who is one of the nurses’ ideal, will have the 200th anniversary of her birth. The nurse’s life, who is also known as the „lady with the lamp”, wasn’t easy, because she needed to face many things/issues. However, she achieved the respect of the nurse profession and the appreciation of the nurses. She has also fought for women rights and studied a lot – thanks for those, she worked out statistic methods that nowadays we still use. As a result/because of her memorandums, she allocated many statistical coherences that are still valid. She confirmed with numerical dates, how big the connection between death and hygiene circumstances is. To her advice, more nursing educations were started, as well as the hospital systems were reformed by her. One of her greatest work is the Notes on nursing, which is counted until today as the number one handbook of nursing.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

FEBRUARY 28, 2020

[The Future Nurse –Work Value Preferences of the Generation Z]

KISS Ibolya, PAPP Katalin

[To explore the work value preferences of nurses born after 1995 and those of different generations. The Super Job Value Preference Questionnaire was completed by nurses of different qualifications (N=106). In the analysis, we ranked the average of each value range to determine the rank, and also the standard deviation value. Preferred values for nurses of each generation: hierarchy, physical environment, ma­teriality for Baby Boomers; for X generation: altruism, hierarchy, physical environment; for the Y generation: altruism, hierarchy, security; and for Z generation: hierarchy, altruism, social relationships. We found differences in preferred work values between generations, and also found the similarities and differences among the generations. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

FEBRUARY 28, 2020

[The Course and Role of the Military Caregivers during World War II]

HIRDI Henriett Éva

[Since the wars of the world, women have continued to play an essential role in the military and the workforce. During the World War II Hungarian women took up jobs in factories, warehouses, offices, and other locations that supported the wartime needs. However the work programs conducted on a voluntary basis did not reach enough workpower. As progressed, the need for more industrial workers became apparent and the government changed its policy regarding women in industry. It was announced in May 1944, that unmarried women between 18 and 30 years of age were called up for compulsory work. Special efforts were made to protect the health of these women. Dr. Mária Baloghy on 1944 introduced a new course based on the factory nursing program, to establish a paid military caregiver serving directly under the control of the Ministry of Defense. The following essay on the course and the support role of the Military Caregivers a series of studies on the history of Nursing.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

DECEMBER 21, 2020

[Family therapy encounters with the philosophy of dialogue – Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy was born 100 years ago]


[This paper deals with the significant therapeutic innovations of Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy in the light of their philosophical foundations. The greatest Hungarian family therapist, Boszormenyi-Nagy’s work evolved in America. The author, referring to Bo­szormenyi-Nagy’s career, presents the phi­losophical roots of his theory. Par­ti­cu­larly Martin Buber’s philosophy of dialogue including the concept of existential guilt, violanting the justice of human order. Bo­szormenyi-Nagy, who elaborated contextual therapy and its main dimension, the ethics of fairness, assumes that family life, ethical questions of truthworthiness and res­ponsibity for the consequences of our actions are inseparable. Contextual therapy was groundbreaking in its time with the therapeutic attitude and method of multidirected partiality, and is relevant even today. This guideline, requiring to include all people with their humanity, solidarity and accountability who are potentially affected remains sound clinical unifying principle of comprehensive psychotherapeutic practice. ]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 30, 2020

[Hormone replacement therapy in cancer survivors – Review of the literature]

DELI Tamás, OROSZ Mónika, JAKAB Attila

[Rapid advance in oncology leads to increasing survival of oncologic patients. More and more of them live long enough to reach either the natural age of menopause or, as a side effect of their oncotherapy, experience the cessation of gonadal function, leading to premature ovarian insuffi ciency, with disturbing vasomotor symtoms and long-term negative cardiovascular and skeletal effects. Thus, an ever increasing number of cancer survivors search endocrinologic help in the form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The misinterpretation of the WHI (Women’s Health Initiative) Study has lead to an irrational fear of female hormone replacement, both by the general population and medical professionals. It has seemed the logical and safe conclusion to many physicians to avoid HRT, supposing that this attitude defi nitely causes no harm, whereas the decision of prescribing estrogen alone or with progestins might bear oncologic and thromboembolic risks and may even lead to litigation in case of a potentially related complication. However, it was known even before the WHI results that premature menopause and hypogonadism decreases the life expectancy of women by years through its skeletal and cardiovascular effects, and this negative effect correlates with the length of the hypoestrogenaemic period. Yet, the oncologic risk of HRT is extremely diffi cult to assess. In this work we review the latest evidence from in vitro experiments to clinical studies. We group tumours regarding the oncologic risk of properly chosen female hormone replacement therapy in cancer survivors as follows: ’HRT is advanageous’ (e.g. endometrial cancer type I, cervical adenocarcinoma, haematologic malignancies, local cutaneous malignant melanoma, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular cancer); ’HRT is neutral’ (e.g. BRCA 1/2 mutation carriers without cancer, endometrial cancer type II, uterinal carcinosarcoma and adenosarcoma, certain types of ovarian cancer, cervical, vaginal and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, prolactinoma, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer); ’HRT is relatively contraindicated’ for various reasons (e.g. leiomyosarcoma, certain types of ovarian tumours, brain tumours, advanced metastatic malignant melanoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, bladder cancer); ’HRT is diasadvantageous and thus contraindicated’ (e.g. breast cancer, endometrial stroma sarcoma, meningioma, glioma, hormone receptor positive gastric and bladder cancer).]