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Clinical Oncology

DECEMBER 30, 2019

[Sequential therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma]


[The incidence of renal carcinoma is on the rise in developed countries, with the tumor being among the 10 most common malignancies. However, the survival of patients with irresecable renal carcinoma has improved signifi cantly in recent years, mainly due to signifi cant advances in oncology treatment. The use of agents acting on the VEGF and mTOR signaling pathways is widespread and has become a standard clinical practice in fi rst and later line therapy. Recent clinical trials have provided many new drugs with new targets (cMET and AXL, FGFR, PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4) and combinations thereof, and have completely redrawn the treatment landscape of metastatic renal carcinoma and signifi cantly improved clinical results. This report reviews data on targeted drug therapy of renal cell carcinoma and discusses the therapeutic position of various drugs and combinations to our knowledge.]

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 30, 2019


KIS Erika Gabriella

[Tumors with standard electrochemotherapy (ECT) has raised over the past decade from skin cancers to locally advanced or metastatic tumors. The procedure became a reliable alternative of other local tumor ablation methods, because of its patient tolerability, effi cacy across histotypes, and repeatability. ECT is based on the physical phenomenon of reversible electroporation; short electric pulses are applied to tumor nodules to achieve transient cell membrane permeabilization to otherwire poorly permeant chemotherapy drugs, which consequently increases cytotoxicity. At present recognized indications include superfi cial metastases of malignant melanoma, breast cancer, head and neck skin tumors, Kaposi sarcoma, primary and recurrent nonmelanoma skin cancers, and in well-selected patients mucosal oropharyngeal cancers. Emerging applications include skin metastases from visceral or hematological malignancies, vulvar cancer, certain benign skin lesions, and the combination of ECT with systemic immunotherapy. Thanks to the technical developments, the new ECT indications are deep-seated tumors, including bone metastases, liver malignancies, pancreatic and prostate cancers with the use of long needle variable geometry electrodes. Herein we review the present status of ECT from the basic principles to emerging applications, and report the effi cacy of standard ECT across histotypes.]

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 30, 2019

[Prevention of drug-related neuropathy in the clinical practice]


[There was a revolution of oncological treatments in the last fi ve years caused by introduction of immuncheckpoint inhibitors. Platinum and taxane based chemotherapies are the standard of care of the most frequent malignancies such as colon and breast cancer. Signifi cant improvement was achieved concerning side effects of chemotherapy in the few past decades. Preventive treatment of vomiting, neutropenia, aneamia are now based on clinical evidences. Meanwhile, there remained side effects (including chemotherapy induced neuropathy) which are diffi cult to treat. This article provides overwiev of the pharmacological therapies, vitamins and non-pharmacological procedures aimed to prevent chemotherapy induced neuropathy. Unfortunately still there are no drugs that are highly effective of preventing of chemotherapy induced periferial neuropathy validated in randomized clinical trials.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 21, 2020

[Teleconsultations in general practice during coronavirus epidemiological emergency]

PAPP Renáta, OBERFRANK Ferenc, BALOGH Sándor

[Modifications of operating the health care belong to the preventive measures of the COVID-19 epidemic. Their priority period was the time interval between March 21, and May 3, 2020. Teleconsultation played an emphasized and dedicated role among General Practitioners (GPs) and the range of health services available through telemedicine was published by the legislation. In the present study, we evaluated the experiences of GPs according to the mandatory family practice guidelines in this period using electronically administered questionnaires sent back by the GPs themselves. 83% of respondents considered that the number of patients consulted by teleconsultations increased significantly if contrasted to the pre-epidemic period. Of the tools used in teleconsultation, all respondents mentioned the telephone, 85.5% mentioned e-mail, while 40% also included social media applica­tions. Prescribing drugs to known chronic patients and documentation were most feasible without face-to-face ap­pointment. 96.5% of GPs responded that they are ready to use teleconsultation even after the epidemiological emergency. We conclude that the GPs met the requirements and responded quickly to the introduction of telemedicine in the epidemiological emergency, which reduced effectively personal contacts in the health care, and according to the feedbacks, “remote” cases got solved successfully. Additionally, telemedicine has also its place in the GP offices in terms of patient care and specialist consultations as well. The implementation of telemedicine is expected to provide opportunities for more rational patient care and management. The development of telemedicine protocols is necessary and actual to support patient safety and medical responsibility.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2020

[The long-term follow-up of enzyme replacement treatment in late onset Pompe disease]

MOLNÁR Mária Judit, BORSOS Beáta, VÁRDI Visy Katalin, GROSZ Zoltán, SEBÕK Ágnes, DÉZSI Lívia, ALMÁSSY Zsuzsanna, KERÉNYI Levente, JOBBÁGY Zita, JÁVOR László, BIDLÓ Judit

[Pompe disease (PD) is a rare lysosomal disease caused by the deficient activity of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme due to mutations in the GAA gene. The enzymatic deficiency leads to the accumulation of glycogen within the lysosomes. Clinically, the disease has been classically classified in infantile and childhood/adult forms. Presently cc. close to 600 mutations distributed throughout the whole gene have been reported. The c.-32-13T>G splice mutation that is very common in patients of Caucasian origin affected by the childhood/adult form of the disease, with an allelic frequency close to 70%. Enzyme replacement treatment (ERT) is available for the patients with Pompe disease (Myozyme). In this paper, we are presenting the long term follow up of 13 adult onset cases treated more than 5 years. The longest follow up was 15 years. To evaluate the treatment efficacy, the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT) and the respiratory functions were monitored annually. The analysis revealed that at the beginning of ERT for 3-4 years the 6MWT had been generally increasing, then it declined, and after 10 years it was lower in 77% of the cases than it had been at the start of the treatment. In 23% of the cases the 6MWT increased during the follow up time. Only one of the patients become wheelchair dependent during the follow-up period. The respiratory function showed similar results especially in supine position. A high degree of variability was observed among patients in their responses to the treatment, which only partially associated with the antibody titer against the therapeutic protein. The efficacy of the ERT was associated with the type of the disease causing mutation, the baseline status of the disease, the lifestyle and the diet of the patient. The long-term follow up of the patients with innovative orphan drugs is necessary to really understand the value of the treatment and the need of the patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2016

[Financing of medicines for treatment of rare diseases of the nervous system. orphan drugs in rare neurological diseases]


[Objectives – Nervous system involvement is expected up to 60-70% in case of rare diseases. This article aims to present the financial methods and expenditures of rare neurological diseases’ orphan medicinal products being financed in the frame of Hungarian social insurance system in 2012. Methods – The subsidized orphan medicines were selected on the Orphanet portal 2012 while orphans financed by compessionate use were provided by the Hungarian National Insurance Fund Administration (OEP) database. Three products exist without orphan designation, however those are intended for the treatment of rare neurological ailments. The medicines were categorized by financial methods and determined by costs. Results – Numerically, out of 36 pieces of subsidized orphan or orphan criteria fulfilled medicines 17 were authorized for the treatments of rare neurological diseases in the year of 2012. Most of the drugs (14 pieces) were to be financed in the frame of compassionate use by the reimbursement system. The cost amount of social insurance for 387 rare neurological disease patients reached more than 4.5 billion HUF (1.4% of the total pharmaceutical budget in outpatient care). Conclusions – In Hungary half of the subsidized orphans are intended for the treatments of rare neurological ailments. 30% of the total amount of social insurance for rare diseases’ medicinal treatments were used to subsidizing rare neurological disease patients in 2012. Most of the orphan medicines were to be financed in the frame of compassionate use by the reimbursement system for outpatient care. Consequently, a great deal of crucial problems occurred in relation with the unconventional subsidizing method. At the end of 2012 new financial methods have been elaborated and introduced in a pilot phase from 1 January 2013. In spite of the high cost commitment, nearly the entire diagnosed rare disease subpopulation have been provided with subsidized treatments in Hungary. In order to facilitate the acces to orphan medicines, collaboration shall be achieved by financing authority and professionals for identificating the descently sustainable, affordable and viable financial method. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2016

[The importance of anticoagulant therapy in patients with artial fibrillation in stroke prevention – summary of international data and novel therapeutic modalities]


[The most common cardiogenic cause of ischaemic stroke is atrial fibrillation which increases the probability of stroke five-fold and doubles case fatality. Based on international data the incidence of atrial fibrillation is approx. 2% however this rapidly increases with age. The necessity of using oral anticoagulants in the prevention of non-valvular atrial fibrillation related stroke is decided based on estimated stroke risk. The CHADS2 and the more predictive CHA2DS2-VASc scales are used for this purpose while the bleeding risk of patients treated with anticoagulant may be estimated by the HAS-BLED scoring scale. For decades oral anticoagulation meant using vitamin-K antagonists. Based on international data we can see that rate of anticoagulation is unacceptably low, furthermore most of the anticoagulated patients aren’t within the therapeutic range of INR (INR: 2-3). A lot of disadvantages of vitamin-K antagonists are known (e.g. food-drug interaction, need for regular coagulation monitoring, increased risk of bleeding), therefore compounds with new therapeutic target have been developed. The novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) can be divided in two major subgroups: direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran etexilate) and Xa-factor inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban). These products are administered in fix doses, they less frequently interact with other medications or food, and regular coagulation monitoring is not needed when using these drugs. Moreover several studies have shown that they are at least as effective in the prevention of ischaemic stroke than the vitamin-K antagonists, with no more haemorrhagic complications.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

Effects of valproate, carbamazepine and levetiracetam on Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratio


Aim - To evaluate P-wave dispersion before and after antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment as well as to investigate the risk of ventricular repolarization using the Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with epileptic disorder. Methods - A total of 63 patients receiving AED therapy and 35 healthy adults were included. ECG recordings were obtained before and 3 months after anti-epileptic treatment among patients with epilepsy. For both groups, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured using a 12-lead ECG device. Results - Tp-e interval, Tpe/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were found to be higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05, for all), while QTmax ratio was significantly lower in the patient group. After 3 months of AED therapy, significant increases in QT max, QTc max, QTcd, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc were found among the patients (p<0.05). When the arrhythmic effects of the drugs before and after treatment were compared, especially in the valproic acid group, there were significant increases in Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc values after three months of treatment (p<0.05). Carbamazepine and levetiracetam groups were not statistically significant in terms of pre- and post-treatment values. Conclusions - It was concluded that an arrhythmogenic environment may be associated with the disease, and patients who received AED monotherapy may need to be followed up more closely for arrhythmia.

Clinical Oncology

DECEMBER 10, 2018

[PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway as a therapeutic target]


[The PI3K-AKT-mTOR is one of the most busy signalling pathway, accepting and sending the message to the effector compartment. The pathway is very complex with activators (see the name), and inhibitors, as PTEN. Depending of the cell type this pathway participates in almost all functions of a given cell. The members of the pathway may have genetic failures, as a consequence, the risk for the development of different diseases, including cancer is high. Therefore it is logical to produce drugs to inhibit the dysregulated function. Unfortunately, despite the promising preclinical effectivity, so far only 4 drugs can be used to treat cancer patients. There are some hypothesis for the in effectivity, e.g. no useful marker for patient selection, high toxicity, false drivers for targeting. What is sure, combination therapy is much better than monotherapy]

Hypertension and nephrology

DECEMBER 12, 2019

[Serotoninergic drugs for weight loss. A review of efficacy and cardiovascular safety of lorcaserin]


[Complex therapy of obesity consist the medical treatment. Several weight lowering drugs are available in the United States, one of which is 5-HT2c agonist lorcaserin. After failures with former non-selective serotoninergic agents (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine), there was great anticipation and more questions about the release of lorcaserin, which proved its effectiveness and safety in several phase 3 studies. Lorcaserin is a selective agonist of 5-HT2c receptors, therefore free form adverse effects of former non-selective serotoninergic drugs on valvulopathy or pulmonary hypertension. The results of the recently published CAMELLIATIMI 61 study confirmed the cardiovascular safety of lorcaserin.]