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Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[A rare complication of a rare disease; stroke due to relapsing polychondritis]

KILIC COBAN Eda, XANMEMMEDOV Elimir, COLAK Melek, SOYSAL Aysun

[Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of cartilaginous structures. Its diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features such as laboratory parameters, biopsy. Neurological complications occur in 3% of the cases and are classified as an important cause of death. The cranial nerve disorders are most common but hemiplegia, ataxia, myelitis, polyneuritis, seizures, confusion, hallucination and headache can also happen. The aetiology of central nervous system involvement is still unknown. Moreover stroke has rarely reported in these patients. The diagnosis of stroke is challenging because of its rarity among these patients. Perhaps vasculitis is the common underlying mechanism. Also meningitis and encephalitis can occur during the course of RP. A 44 year-old woman was admitted with uncontemplated left hemiparesis, redness, swelling, and tenderness of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the right hand and the cartilaginous portion. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. Vasculitis biomarkers were normal in our patient. Carotid and vertebral artery doppler ultrasonography, cranial and cervical MR Angiography were normal. Echocardiography showed a mild mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation. Our patient had the history of auricular polychondritis but she had not been diagnosed. Hemiparesis was her first neurological manifestation that led her to doctors for diagnosis. Our patient fulfilled the criteria of RP so no biopsy was needed. She was treated with oral prednisolone (80 mg/day) and aspirin (300 mg/day) and now she is on 10 mg prednisolone and 150 mg azathioprine. Two months later her physical and neurological symptoms returned to normal.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 20, 2017

[Prevention of invasive meningococcal infection, recognition and first treatment of the disease in primary care]

KOVÁCS Ákos, KULCSÁR Andrea, KALABAY László, TORZSA Péter

[In this article, based on a short case report, the authors summarise what you must do and must not do as a primary care physician when suddenly meeting a young patient suspected of having meningococcus infection. Neisseria meningitidis, the meningococcus, is a Gram-negative diplococcal bacterium that is only found naturally in humans. The meningococcus is part of the normal microbiota of the human nasopha-rynx and is commonly carried in healthy individuals. In some cases systemic invasion occurs, which can lead to meningitis and/or septicemia. Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis is potentially de­vastating, with a high case fatality rate and high rates of significant sequelae among survivors after septicaemia or meningitis. Between 2006 and 2015 every year there were 34 to 70 cases of the registered invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis, the morbidity rate being 0.02-0.07‱. Half of the diseases (50.7%) were caused by serotype B N. meningitidis, 23.2% were serotype C. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2017

[Prevention of invasive meningococcal infection, recognition and first treatment of the disease in primary care]

KOVÁCS Ákos, KULCSÁR Andrea, KALABAY László, TORZSA Péter

[Neisseria meningitidis, the meningococcus, is a Gram-negative diplococcal bacterium that is only found naturally in humans. The meningococcus is part of the normal microbiota of the human nasopharynx and is commonly carried in healthy individuals. In some cases systemic invasion occurs, which can lead to meningitis and/or septicemia. Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis is potentially devastating, with a high case fatality rate and high rates of significant sequelae among survivors after septicaemia or meningitis. Between 2006-2015 every year between 34 and 70 were the numbers of the registered invasive disease because of Neisseria meningitis, the morbidity rate was 0.2-0.7⁰⁄₀₀₀₀. Half of the diseases (50.7%) were caused by B serotype N. meningitidis, 23.2% were C serotype. In this article the authors summarise what you must do and must not do as primary care physician when suddenly meeting a young patients suspected of having meningococcus infection. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JUNE 20, 2016

[Neurological symptoms in a patient with treated multiple myeloma]

ZOMBORI Tamás, PIUKOVICS Klára

[INTRODUCTION - Meningeal infiltration by multiple myeloma is rare. Its incidence among cases of multiple myeloma is 1%. CASE REPORT - Multiple myeloma was diagnosed in a 53-year-old woman in December 2014. After chemotherapy, the disease was treated with autologous bone marrow transplantation in June 2015. Remission was observed through two months, but in August the patient was hospitalized due to severe headache with neck stiffness. Meningitis or viral encephalitis were suspected following her investigation. She was taken to the Intensive Care Unit because of a progression to status epilepticus. The EEG-examination revealed generalized slow wave activity and a right temporal epileptiform focus manifesting rarely. Clinical brain death developed on the 17th day in hospital. DISCUSSION - Although meningeal infiltration is infrequent in multiple myeloma, the present case report draws attention to this possibility. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2016

[Closure of nasocranial fistulas with “bath-plug” technique and multilayer reconstruction]

PISKI Zalán, BÜKI András, NEPP Nelli, BURIÁN András, RÉVÉSZ Péter, GERLINGER Imre

[Background and purpose - In case of dehiscenses developing on the anterior scull base, complete closure resulting in the cessation of the communication between the nasal cavity and the intracranial space is mandatory as soon as possible, in order to prevent serious complications. With the development of the endoscopic techniques, the endonasal management for the reconstruction has become available in recent decades. Methods - We aim to present the reconstruction techniques applied in our department in the cases of two patients recently operated at our institute. The choice of methods primarily depends on the size and the localization of the defect. Dehiscenses under 5 mm of diameter can be closed with the so called “bath-plug” technique, while bigger defects, where the required closure of the plug is not possible, can be solved with multilayer reconstruction. We use autogenous fascia, fat and muco-periosteum in both cases. Results - Our patient, who underwent the aforementioned “bath-plug” procedure, could be discharged after a few days of uneventful postoperative period. During a tenmonth follow- up period new fistula formation was not observed. In the case of a patient who underwent multilayer reconstruction, meningitis occurred postoperatively, which was resolved after antibiotic therapy. During a 17- month follow- up period recurrent liquorrhoea did not occur. Conclusion - With suitable technical background and appropriate endoscopic skills the surgeries of the anterior skull base cerebrospinal fluid fistulas can be performed efficiently and with low complication rate. These are minimally invasive procedures accompanied by less surgical trauma, morbidity and shorter hospitalization, hence these techniques are considered to be cost-effective and well- tolerated for the patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 20, 2016

[Tuberculous meningoencephalitis in a toddler child]

REISZ Zita, GÁL Péter, TAJTI Zsanett, TERHES Gabriella, URBÁN Edit, KISS Ildikó, BARZÓ Pál, KIS Dávid, SENONER Zsuzsanna, SZABÓ Nóra, SZAPPANOS Norbert, TISZLAVICZ László

[INTRODUCTION - Central nervous system complications occur in 1% of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the mortality is very high, about 50 percent. CASE REPORT - A 1-year-old child in tenebrous condition was admitted to the hospital with suspicion of meningitis. MRI detected disseminated encephalitis and dilated ventricles. Examination of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid didn’t bring any results. The microscopic examination of the brain biopsy raised the possibility of tuberculous meningoencephalitis, and the culture and PCR from the brain tissue revealed meningoencephalitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing. DISCUSSION - Tuberculous meningitis is a very rare, but severe consequence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Due to the high mortality, early diagnosis and whenever suspected, the use of empiric antituberculotic therapy are the only chances of recovery.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2014

[Pneumococcal meningitis in a pregnant woman]

SCHAREK Petra, JEKKEL Csilla, BUDAI József, SZILASI Zsuzsanna, HELFERICH Frigyes, ÁRVA Ilona, VÁRADI András, LÉTAY Erzsébet, KATONA Katalin, RÓKUSZ László

[Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease. The incidence of meningitis is about 2.6-6 cases per 100.000 adults per year in developed countries. The most common causative microorganisms are Sreptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. A 33-year-old multigravida, at 24 week of gestation was admitted to the hospital because of ear pain, haedache, fever and confusion. Lumbal puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed signs of bacterial meningitis. Latex agglutination test was positive for S. pneumoniae, Gram-positive diplococci have seen under microscope and later cultivation verified S. pneumoniae as the causative agent. After ceftriaxon, dexamethasone administration and treatment in intensive care unit, left side mastoidectomy was performed since cranial computed tomography showed acut exacerbation of chronic mastoiditis on the left side. After extubation, mobilisation and 14 days antibiotic treatment the patient, who had residual hearing loss on the left side, was discharged from the hospital. During the treatment the foetal parameters were normal. The patient at 39 week of gestation gave birth to a healthy infant. Forty-eight case reports have been published in this topic around the world until April, 2012. The most common causative agents were S. pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes. Because of the little amount of data, it is hard to appreciate the actual incidence and prognosis of this life-threatening illness both for mother and infant. As far as we know this is the first published case report of meningitis during pregnancy in Hungary. By this article we would like to draw attention to the importance of teamwork, of prevention of brain abscess formation and of the removal of the infection’s focus.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2012

[Endoscopic, posterior transseptal pituitary surgery - Learning curve of the surgical technique and equipment in 61 operations]

BELLA Zsolt, FÜLÖP Béla, CSAJBÓK Éva, MAGONY Sándor, VALKUSZ Zsuzsa, HERCZEGH Szilvia, JÓRI József, BODOSI Mihály, CZIGNER Jenő, BARZÓ Pál

[Introduction - The removal of hypophyseal tumor by transsphenoidal pituitary surgery using microsurgical instruments was first performed over 100 years ago. Operating techniques for this surgery are constantly being renewed, first by using a microscope and later on with the use of an endoscop. The authors provide an overview of the minimal invasive posterior transseptal-transsphenoidal aproach with the combined utilization of classical techniques with the assistance of the endoscop. Method - Sixty-one patients (33 female, 28 male, 21-84 yrs) were treated for sellar region tumor resection using an endonasal transsphenoidal aproach with the help of an endoscop. Follow ups were performed within 2-21 months. Results - Total tumor resection was successful in 91.8%, and partial resection in 8.2% of the patients. The rate of complications using the endoscop method was not higher compared to that of the classical microscopic method. There was no major bleeding in any of the cases. Adverse events such as minor epistaxis occurred in 4.9%, transitional diabetes insipidus in 6.5%, inraoperative CSF leak in 16.67%, postoperative CSF leak in 11.5% and meningitis in 8.2% of the patients. After the operation the pathological hormonal production stoped in all patients except in two patients who were acromegalic. However their GH level normalized and they did not require further treatment, the IGF-1 still remained high. Conclusion - The success of the surgical treatment is based on both, the proficient pre- and postoperative endocrinological care, and the minimal invasive surgical technique. The endoscop was used partially or continuously during the operation for better visualization of the operation field in multiple angles (30°, 45°). It was useful in differentiating between normal and tumorous glandular tissue, and also offered an enhanced view of the intrasellar (via hydroscopy) and parasellar region. Moreover the endoscopic method is able to decrease the operating time, reduce blood loss. In different stages of the surgery, depending on the anatomical and pathological situation, switching back and forth from microscope to endoscop technique, gives us the benefit of a clearer view in each situation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

DECEMBER 20, 2008

[Pneumococcal meningitis in children - 9 1/2-year-experience at Szent László hospital, Budapest, Hungary ]

IVÁDY Balázs, LIPTAI Zoltán, ÚJHELYI Enikő, BALÁZS György

[Background and objective - No recent publications are available about pneumococcal meningitis in Hungarian children. The aim of this study was to collect data of epidemiological, clinical and prognostic features of pneumococcal meningitis in children treated at Szent László Hospital, Budapest, Hungary. Methods - We conducted a retrospective review of medical charts and follow-up records of patients aged 1 to 18 years admitted to our Pediatric and Pediatric Intensive Care Units due to pneumococcal meningitis between 1st Jan 1998 and 30th Jun 2007. Results - 31 children with 34 cases of pneumococcal meningitis were admitted to our hospital in the study period. Two children developed recurrent illness. The mean age was 6 years, 26% were under 1 year of age. The mean duration of hospital stay was 21 days, 97% required intensive care. Frequent clinical symptoms were fever (100%), nuchal rigidity and vomiting (78%), altered mental status (71%), Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs (58%) and seizures (41%). Otitis media, sinusitis, mastoiditis were present in 44%, 58%, 41%, respectively. Subdural effusion, parenchymal cerebral lesion and sinus thrombosis were documented in 5, 3 and 2 cases, respectively. One third of the patients recieved ceftriaxon, two thirds were administered ceftriaxon and vancomycin. Adjunctive therapy with dexamethason was given to 91% of the children. 70% of patients required mechanical ventillation. 9 patients (25%) required endoscopic sinus surgery. In 13 cases (38%) mastoidectomy, in 5 children (15%) neurosurgery was performed. The case fatality rate was 23.5%. 8 (23.5%) patients had mild or moderate, 1 child (3%) developed severe neurological sequelae. Conclusion - Pneumococcal meningitis in children remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. The long hospital stay, the frequent need for intensive care and severe neurologic sequelae emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, early treatment and prevention with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.]