Lege Artis Medicinae

[The bleeding time]

BODA Zoltán1

APRIL 29, 1992

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1992;2(04)

[The bleeding time is considered to be the best screening test for the detection of disorders of primary haemostasis. Despite a large number of bleeding time tests, the exact pathophysiological background of the prolonged bleeding time is unknown. The significance of the cellular (platelet) von Willebrand protein is emphasized. A sensitive method (Ivy) and standardized devices (Simplate) are suggested. Examination of the bleeding time in cases of von Willebrand disease and congenital or acquired thrombocytopathy is essential. Specific recommendations regarding the rational use of the bleeding time (diagnostic algorythm) are presented. ]


  1. Debreceni Orvostudományi Egyetem II. Belklinika



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Malnutrition syndrome in childhood part I.]

BAKSAI László, PHILIP W. H. Eskes

[Malnutrition is a chrocic nutritional disorder resulting from insufficient intake of caloric energy and/or some the fundamental nutrients. Since it is the most common public health problem in the world it has a great impact on pediatric morbidity and mortality. The etiology is extremely complex. When one considers the less severe symptoms and signs caused by vitamin-, mineral-, and trace element deficiencies, it is apparent that not only children living in underprivileged countries are affected. In the course of making the diagnosis an assessment of the nutritional status should also be made, especially considering the above-mentioned marginal nutritional deficiencies. The most common manifestation of nutritional disorders is anemia, which is mostly caused by lack of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid and can be complicated by infections. Nutritional requirements can be affected by several drugs. That is why this medication-nutrition interaction has to be kept in mind during treatment. The interaction of malnutrition and infection is very important, primarily for three reasons: mechanisms by which infection complicates the metabolic and nutritional status of the host; importance of suboptimal nutritional status on susceptibility and severity of intercurrent infections; clinical and therapeutic implication of these interactions. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Clinical importance of pharmacogenetic investigation]

VAS Ádám, RÓNA Kálmán, GACHÁLYI Béla , SZABÓ Ildikó

[This is a brief review on the most important monogenically determined metabolic polymorphisms, their biochemical background and clinical significance. Relevant data from literature are also featured. The authors review data on possible connections between metabolic polymorphism and the risk of certain diseases.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[Includes the following letters : Little Hungarian point system; ...and the injured?; Abuse of psychosomatics the organic dimension of psychiatry; Psychogenic horsekick; ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[P300 wave evoked by visual and acustic stimuli in parkinsonian patients with or without dementia]


[Authors analysed the relationship between cognitive function disturbance observed in patients with Parkinson's disease and clinical features of the disease. Relationship between the latency prolongation of the P 300 wave and the duration of substitution therapy, clinical form and severity of the disease (the Hoehn-Yahr stage) was examined. 75 randomly selected young patients with Parkinson's disease were divided in to two groups: one with and the other without dementia as determined by the Wechsler. Hunt and Mini Mental State tests. The latency of the P 300 wave using visual and acoustic stimuli was determinated. Significant prolongation of the latency of P 300 wave evoked both by visual and acoustic target stimuli was found in parkinsonian patients with dementia. Patients with dementia have longer duration of disease and substitution therapy. The akinetic-rigid form of the disease was more frequent in this group as well. A significant part of younger patients are chacarterised not only with motor but with cognitive function disturbance, too. Determination of the latency of P 300 wave helps to select these patients and to choose the adequat therapy. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Monitoring the immunophenotype of mononuclear cells in the cerebrospinal fluid acute lymphoid leukemia patients]


[Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were drawn at scheduled intervals from recently diagnosed or recurrent acut lymphoid leukaemia patients undergoing combined cytostatic therapy. The immunophenotype of mononuclear cells, separated from the samples, was determined and compared. It was found that the number of non-pathological mononuclear cells increased from time to time during the intense treatment period of ALL patients with high malignancy or recur rence and that their phenotype was similar to the actual surface markers of peripheral lymphocytes. According to findings in the literature based on monitoring other parameters, this phenomenon may be due to the increased permeability of the blood brain barrier, injured by intense chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or to reactive cell proliferation. ]

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[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia, CSÁBI Eszter

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

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Electrophysiological investigation for autonomic dysfunction in patients with myasthenia gravis: A prospective study


Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autonomic dysfunction is not a commonly known association with MG. We conducted this study to evaluate autonomic functions in MG & subgroups and to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study comprised 30 autoimmune MG patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Autonomic tests including sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation analysis (RRIV) was carried out. The tests were performed two times for patients who were under acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during the current assessment. The RRIV rise during hyperventilation was better (p=0.006) and Valsalva ratio (p=0.039) was lower in control group. The SSR amplitudes were lower thereafter drug intake (p=0.030). As much as time went by after drug administration prolonged SSR latencies were obtained (p=0.043).Valsalva ratio was lower in the AchR antibody negative group (p=0.033). The findings showed that both ocular/generalized MG patients have a subclinical parasympathetic abnormality prominent in the AchR antibody negative group and pyridostigmine has a peripheral sympathetic cholinergic noncumulative effect.

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[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]


[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vaccines against COVID-19 pandemic]


[The rapidly spreading SARS-CoV2 respiratory virus has evoked an epidemic with serious aftermath around the world. In addition to the health effects, the global economic damage is actually unpredictable. At the same time, the pandemic has launched a series of unprecedented collaborative scientific research, including the development of vaccines. This study summarizes up-to-date information on vaccines, immune memory, and some emerging clinical effects.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Risk of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Focus on aceclofenac]


[Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently used pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, a number of studies emphasized that NSAIDs were damaging not only the gastrointestinal (GI), but also the cardiovascular (CV) system, could increase the blood pressure, the frequency of coronary events (angina, myocardial infarction) and stroke incidence, as well as they might deterio­rate renal functions. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) did not find evidence that administering NSAIDs could increase the risk of developing COVID-19 or worsened the condition of COVID-19 patients. However, unwanted effects of specific drugs differ substantially in their occurrence and seriousness as well. It seemed to be for a long time that the NSAIDs provoked higher GI-risk was closely related to the COX1/COX2 selectivity, like the cardiovascular (CV) risk to the COX2/COX1 selectivity, however, the recent data did not prove it clearly. Based on the available literature while pondering the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events, among all NSAIDs the aceclofenac profile seemed to be the most favourable.]