[Tumors with standard electrochemotherapy (ECT) has raised over the past decade from skin
cancers to locally advanced or metastatic tumors. The procedure became a reliable alternative of other
local tumor ablation methods, because of its patient tolerability, effi cacy across histotypes, and repeatability.
ECT is based on the physical phenomenon of reversible electroporation; short electric pulses are applied to
tumor nodules to achieve transient cell membrane permeabilization to otherwire poorly permeant chemotherapy
drugs, which consequently increases cytotoxicity. At present recognized indications include superfi cial
metastases of malignant melanoma, breast cancer, head and neck skin tumors, Kaposi sarcoma, primary
and recurrent nonmelanoma skin cancers, and in well-selected patients mucosal oropharyngeal cancers.
Emerging applications include skin metastases from visceral or hematological malignancies, vulvar cancer,
certain benign skin lesions, and the combination of ECT with systemic immunotherapy. Thanks to the
technical developments, the new ECT indications are deep-seated tumors, including bone metastases, liver
malignancies, pancreatic and prostate cancers with the use of long needle variable geometry electrodes.
Herein we review the present status of ECT from the basic principles to emerging applications, and report
the effi cacy of standard ECT across histotypes.]