Clinical Neuroscience



MARCH 20, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(03-04)

[Even tough the central nervous system (CNS) of gastropods has long been used as a model for studying different neuronal networks underlying behaviors, there is only little information on the molecular components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the nervous tissue. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify some of the ECM molecules by acid-base histochemistry. Staining with alcian blue at strong acidic pH, and with acridine orange at different pH and salt concentrations was carried out on cryostat sections taken from CNS preparations of adult specimens of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia, and the aquatic species, Lymnaea stagnalis, in order to visualize mild (carboxyl) and strong (sulphate) acidic groups, which are characteristic for different glucosaminoglycans. According to our findings, sulphated proteoglycans were abundant in the periganglionic sheath of both species, and they also occurred in the neuropil of Helix, whereas they were absent in Lymnaea. The interperikaryonal space contained mainly carboxyl residues, which might refer to the presence of hyaluronic acid. It is concluded that the ECM of the snail CNS, similarly to that in vertebrates, is partly composed of polymer macromolecules of different chemical properties. It is suggested that adaptation to environmental conditions and/or altered neuronal plasticity are responsible for the differences found in chemical characters of the ECM molecules between the two snail species.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience



[Dedication 2007;60(03-04)]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Editor’s note]


[Editor’s note 2007;60(03-04) ]

Clinical Neuroscience



[Based on data accumulated regarding the neuroprotective action of Proline-Rich-Peptide-1 (PRP-1, a fragment of neurophysin vasopressin associated hypothalamic glycoprotein consisting of 15 amino acid residues) on neurons survival and axons regeneration and taking into the account that LVV-Hemorphin-7 (LVV-H7, an opioid peptide, widely distributed in different cell types of various tissues of intact rats, including those of the nervous and immune systems) derived from the proteolitic processing of hemoglobin in response to adverse environmental and physiological conditions, possesses the anti-stressor properties, we used histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology to investigate the putative neuroprotective action of Central Asian Cobra Naja naja oxiana snake venom (NOX) on trauma-injured rats. ABC immunohistochemical method and histochemical method on detection of Ca2+- dependent acid phosphatase activity were used for the morpho-functional study. By recording the electrical activity of the signals from the single neurons in and below the SC injury place, NOX venom has been shown to result in the complete restoration of hypothalamic-spinal projections originated from ipsi- and contra-lateral PVN and SON to neurons of SC lumbar part. NOX prevented the scar formation, well observed two months after SC injury in the control rats, resulted in the regeneration of nerve fibers growing through the trauma region, survival of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-immunoreactive (Ir) neurons, and increase of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-Ir nerve fibers and astrocytes in the SC lesion region. NOX was suggested to exert the neuroprotective effect, involving the PRP-1 and LVV-H7 in the underlying mechanism of neuronal recovery.]

Clinical Neuroscience


BAHNER Udo, GEIGER Helmut, PALKOVITS Miklós, LENKEI Zsolt, LUFT C. Friedrich, HEIDLAND August

[To test the effect of dehydration on brain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations in areas important to salt appetite, water balance and cardiovascular regulation, we subjected rats to dehydration and rehydration and measured ANP concentration in 18 brain areas, as well as all relevant peripheral parameters. Water deprivation decreased body weight, blood pressure, urine volume, and plasma ANP, while it increased urine and plasma osmolality, angiotensin II, and vasopressin. ANP greatly increased in 17 and 18 brain areas (all cut cerebral cortex) by 24 h. Rehydration for 12 h corrected all changes evoked by dehydration, including elevated ANP levels in brain. We conclude that chronic dehydration results in increased ANP in brain areas important to salt appetite and water balance. These results support a role for ANP as a neuroregulatory substance that participates in salt and water balance.]

Clinical Neuroscience


BALI Balázs, NAGY Zoltán, KOVÁCS J. Krisztina

[Introduction - (-)Deprenyl is an irreversible inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), which is now used for treatment of Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Evidence suggests that the neuroprotective effect of deprenyl may not be related exclusively to the inhibition of the enzyme MAO-B. Methods - To test the impact of deprenyl on ischemiainduced changes in vitro, we followed the time course of propidium iodide (PI) uptake as an indicator of neuronal cell death as well as the expression of apoptotic factors in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen- glucose deprivation (OGD) for 45 min. Results - The first signs of neuronal death were detected 2 hours after OGD and were extended to all subfields of the hippocampus by 24 hours post-injury. Presence of deprenyl (10-9 M) significantly delayed the cell death induced by the insult. Exposure of control cultures to deprenyl significantly increased the abundance of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNAs as revealed by RT-PCR. OGD resulted in an elevation of anti-apoptotic factors, while the expression of pro-apoptotic bax remained unchanged. Conclusion - These data suggest that deprenyl is neuroprotective in an in vitro model of ischemia. Although deprenyl upregulates the expression of Bcl-2 under basal conditions, its effect on anti-apoptotic factors is not significantly manifested during OGD.]

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[Tuberculous meningoencephalitis in a toddler child]

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[INTRODUCTION - Central nervous system complications occur in 1% of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the mortality is very high, about 50 percent. CASE REPORT - A 1-year-old child in tenebrous condition was admitted to the hospital with suspicion of meningitis. MRI detected disseminated encephalitis and dilated ventricles. Examination of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid didn’t bring any results. The microscopic examination of the brain biopsy raised the possibility of tuberculous meningoencephalitis, and the culture and PCR from the brain tissue revealed meningoencephalitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing. DISCUSSION - Tuberculous meningitis is a very rare, but severe consequence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Due to the high mortality, early diagnosis and whenever suspected, the use of empiric antituberculotic therapy are the only chances of recovery.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Central nervous system hemorrhage in Wegener’s granulomatosis]

SZABOLCSI Orsolya, SZÁNTÓ Antónia, ZEHER Margit

[In our case a 41-year-old man with following symptoms: non-productive coughing, fever, difficulty in breathing and weight loss was examined in February 2007, and on the basis of chest X-ray, CT and bronchoscopy, the possibility of neoplasm or tuberculosis cropped up. After the applied therapy (steroid, antibiotics, tuberculostatic drugs) the symptoms became more severe, i.e. hematuria and epistaxis were manifested. A tissue biopsy was carried out during bronchoscopy and the histological examination revealed granulomatous reaction. Meanwhile, the presence of c-ANCA was proved, and Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) was diagnosed. In March 2007, sudden somnolence and left side hemiplegia developed, and a large haemorrhage was recognised on CT scan in the right fronto-temporal region, with regard to the haemorrhage, the patient had to undergo a neurosurgical operation. We started to treat him in April 2007 by intravenous steroid and 600 mg of cyclophosphamide (Cyc), and he regained the ability to walk again. In October 2007, the Cyc treatment was terminated, and we administered a maintenance therapy with methotrexat. During the regular medical check-up, a chest X-ray indicated a second attack in March 2008, which was confirmed by the chest CT, the clinical symptoms, increased anti-PR3 levels and c-ANCA positivity as well. The flair of the disease was established. Consequently, in April 2008 we decided on plasmapheresis therapy synchronised with Cyc. After that, we started an azathioprine maintenance therapy and he got rid of all the activation symptoms. We can say that with the adequate therapy started in good time and with the regular medical check up of the patient a good result can be achieved. It is true even in the case of WG disease associated by severe complication, for example central nervous hemorrhage.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


NAGY Judit, KISS István

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Extracellular matrix of intracerebral tumors with different invasion activity]


[Objectives - Ineffective surgical and radiotherapy of glioblastoma is mainly due to its intensive infiltrating behavior. Contrarily, brain metastases of anaplastic carcinomas are well-circumscribed intracerebral lesions that can be easily exstirpated in most cases. The molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a pivotal role in the peritumoral infiltration. In this study the mRNA expression of the ECM components was investigated in two types of intracerebral malignoma with different invasion activity. Our aim was to identify the ECM molecules that are responsible for the different intensity of peritumoral infiltration of tumors from different origin. Methods - The mRNA expression of twenty-three ECM molecules was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Four pieces of glioblastoma and four pieces of intracerebral lung adenocarcinoma metastasis from neurosurgical operation were investigated. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed in case of five molecules. Results - The mRNA expression of nine molecules (brevican, neurocan, neuroglycan-C, syndecan-1,2,4, tenascin-C, versican and matrix-metalloproteinase-[MMP]2) differed significantly by comparison of the two tumor types. By immunohistochemistry, neurocan, syndecan, versican and MMP-2 showed alteration in staining intensity according to the mRNA expression, while MMP-9 showed higher staining intensity in the metastatic tumor. Conclusions - The identified molecules can play an important role in the different infiltration activity of tumors from different origin. Thus these ECM-components could serve as targets for anti-invasion therapy in the future.]