[Relationship of cardiovascular risk factors and bone status in a large adult population of the Balaton Region]


NOVEMBER 10, 2007

Ca&Bone - 2007;10(04)

[BACKROUND - Numerous international studies have investigated the relationship between bone metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results are controversial, there are those proving an increasing effect of diabetes on bone density but we know data that prove the opposite results. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between bone density, obesity and carbohydrate metabolism on a large Hungarian population. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The data from a large population screening (n=6287, mean age 56±13 years, men: n=1561, women: n=4726), carried out in the Balaton Region, Hungary, were analyzed (anthropometry, blood glucose and total cholesterol, blood pressure, calcaneus ultrasound T-score). RESULTS - Analyzing the relationship between type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis/osteopenia, we found, that the prevalence of osteopenia is significantly higher in diabetic women between 50-60 years of age than that of normal glucose tolerance, (50 vs. 36.34%, OR: 1.711, 95% CI: 1.076-2.722, p<0.022), however in different age groups and in males there were no significant differences, similar to the metabolic syndrome which did not influence the prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia. In normal weight (male and female) diabetic population over 60 years of age, the frequency of osteoporosis/ ostepenia was much higher, than in the normal weight normal glucose tolerance group, which difference was borderline-significant in the case of osteoporosis (63.63 vs. 26.2%, OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 0.969-7.6, p=0.054), and did not reach it with osteopenia (53.38 vs. 43.31%, p=0.359). In the same age group, within the “all glucose intolerant” and “all normal glucose tolerance” groups the prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia did not differ. We found significant correlation between BMI and T score only in women and it was strongest in age group of over 70 years (r=+0.23, p<0.001). CONCLUSION - Our data suggest that the increased bone density often measured in type 2 diabetic patients is actually the consequence of the accompanying obesity, and not of diabetes itself, which is rather a risk factor for bone loss.]



Further articles in this publication


[MOOT-COMP study - Compliance of patients with antiporotic treatment]

BORS Katalin, BOROS Erzsébet

[INTRODUCTION - Several studies prove the importance of the lack of compliance in the ineffectiveness of drugs which have been tested by clinical studies. In our study we finded the reasons of leaving off the antiporotic treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS - 1067 osteoporotic patients (91% women, 9% men) were enrolled to examine compliance and to find explanation of non-compliance. We asked the patients about medications, exercises, electrotherapy and medical aids. RESULTS - Medications were recommended for most patients and exercise was the secondary most common therapeutic method. Electrotherapy was prescribed for one third and medical aids were recommended for one fifth of the recruited patients. Two third of patients reported to take all pills, most of them suffered from bone fracture. More than one fifth of patients sometimes or often forgot to take the treatment. 10% more patients did exercises than it was recommended by the practitioner. However, only 25% of all patients did exercises appropriate frequency and at least 20 minutes per day. Electrotherapy was not prescribed by the doctors for more than half of patients on this treatment. Medical aids were not used by 10% of patients despite the recommendations. Almost one third of the enrolled patients reported a fact which disturbed keeping recommendations of the doctors. These facts were financial problems, long waiting lists and low motivation of patients for keeping recommendations. The compliance did not correlate with education and social status. The patients with multiple fractures were more comply with medications and exercises. CONCLUSION - Drawing the informed patient into decision making and knowing the therapeutic outcome are important factors for keeping therapeutic recommendations. The high fracture rate in Hungary attracts our attention for enhance patient compliance.]


[Dear Colleagues and Readers!]



[Decreased bone resorption in H1-receptorantagonist treated allergic children]


[INTRODUCTION - Histamine receptor antagonists seems to have effect on bone metabolism according to previous studies. We investigated the bone turnover in allergic children who were treated with H1-histaminreceptor (H1R) antagonists. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The biochemical bone turnover markers [β-CrossLaps (β-CTx), osteocalcin (OCN), β-CTx/OCN ratio], parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the 25(OH)vitamin D3 were determined in 37 H1Rantagonist treated multiplex allergic children and in 21 age and gender matched healthy children. The intracytoplasmatic histidine decarboxylase (HDC), histamin, and surface H1 and H2 receptors expression were assessed by flow cytometry on peripheral leukocytes. The distribution of lymphocyte subpopulation were also determined. RESULTS - The serum OCN, PTH and 25(OH)vitamin D3 levels did not differ between the healthy and the allergic groups. However, the β-CTx was lower in the H1Rantagonists treated allergic children (1090.82±80.25 pg/ml) in comparison with controls (1456.58±95.81 pg/ml; p=0.006). The β-CTx/OCN ratio was found to be lower in the H1R-antagonists treated allergic than in the controls (9.24±0.608 vs. 12.65±0.53; p=0.001). β-CTx serum level correlated with OCN in the controls (r=0.845, p<0.001) and in the H1R-antagonist treated allergic, too (r=0.519, p=0.005). Higher HDC expression and H1 receptor down regulation was found in allergic children. The CD3+/CD16-56+ T cells were in higher rate in children of control group. CONCLUSION - Decreased bone resorption was found among H1 receptor antagonist treated allergic children, which is indicated by serum markers. Therefore, bone turnover is shifted toward bone formation in the H1Rantagonist treated allergic subjects.]

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[The concept of adherence and its significance in osteoporosis]


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[Evaluation of quality of life following treatment with calcitonin nasal spray in patients with osteoporosis: preliminary results of the MERLIN study]


[INTRODUCTION - MERLIN (Management of Osteoporosis in Elderly with Calcitonin) is an open-label, multicenter, prospective, follow-up study conducted in Hungary, part of which is to assess the impact of treatment with Miacalcic, - an intranasal salmon calcitonin, on the quality of life (QoL) among patients with osteoporosis. In this paper we report the preliminary results of the MERLIN study. PATIENTS - The study initially involved 1949 senior patients (aged >65 years) to whom calcitonin was prescribed for osteoporosis according to the application instructions. Patients presented at outpatient clinics and consisted of two groups; they were either newly diagnosed or they had been receiving a therapy for osteoporosis other than calcitonin. METHODS - This latter group discontinued their previous treatment and all patients received 200 IU intranasal salmon calcitonin (SCT) once daily for three months. Patient and physician questionnaires were used to collect information on the patients' QoL (EQ-5D VAS) and their general well-being at baseline and at follow-up visits at week 4 and week 12. RESULTS - Calcitonin use was associated with improvements in all EQ-5D domains and component scores as well as in VAS. Patients with previously known osteoporosis who, switched to calcitonin therapy achieved better results (0,046 QALY), than the newly diagnosed patients (0,0405 QALY). CONCLUSIONS - We conclude that intranasal SCT 200 IU daily is safe and effective in improving QoL of both, male and female patients with low bone mineral density.The conclusions that can be drawn from this study are limited due to the lack of a control group and to the unblinded design. Further placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm these results. Nevertheless, our study was the first in Hungary to evaluate the quality of life impact of an osteoporosis treatment, and hopefully it will be followed by more such studies directed to other osteoporosis treatments.]


[Management of hip fractures: practice, results, and problems in the last decade]


[Among fractures attributable to osteoporosis, hip fractures are associated with the most severe consequences and the greatest costs. Surgical therapy for this condition is continuing to improve. Increasingly recent implants and techniques are being developed and introduced to successfully control postoperative adverse events. The authors briefly outline actual practice in Hungary and present some results of the follow-up of their patients in the last decade. These show that, in order to improve outcomes of hip fracture patients, all domains of management need to be addressed.]