Lege Artis Medicinae

[Is it performance funding? - or performance funding]


SEPTEMBER 25, 1991

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1991;1(15)

[Members of the Parliament's Committee on Social Affairs, Family Protection and Health, and experts, frequently criticise the legislative and law-making work of the Ministry of Public Welfare. The criticism is usually due to delays, vagueness and vagueness of wording, which in itself is a source of further delays. ]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[On pulmonary tuberculosis]


[The author evaluates the epidemiological conditions of pulmonary tuberculosis in Hungary. The number of new cases decreases year after year. Being the disease infectious afterall, efforts must be continued against it adapted to the new epidemiological situation. This requires the collaboration of all the medical network systems as the pulmonological one is inefficient itself. Though the disease is rare, it cannot be forgotten and in certain cases tuberculosis must be borne in mind as well.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis]


[Since the number of tuberculous patients is constantly decreasing, the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is a new challenge for physicians. That produces a lifethreatening danger specially for old tuberculous patients. Primary infection – since the clinical tuber culosis of children practically disappeared in Hungary - can be established mostly on young people with general symptoms, who's tuberculin-reaction shows hyperergy. The specific etiology of pleurisy can be determined by the exclusion of other etiologies on young tuberculin-positive people, but a thoracoscopic biopsy may be needed. Tuberculous bronchadenitis is a rarity, but must be differentiated from sarcoidosis or malignant mediastinal lymph nodes. In infiltrative lung diseases, primary and se condary pneumonias (caused in first line by lung cancer) and pulmonary infarctions are much more frequent, than tbc. The most difficult is the differential diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary diseases. The author warns against the too early application of aggressive diagnostic methods (BAL and especially lung biopsy by thoracotomy). He emphasizes in these situations the advantages of an antituberculous treatment without diagnosis (especially in old patients). In coin lesions the very specific transthoracic needle biopsy should be preferated. The author refers to the new researches objecting the rapid detection of BK in the sputum of paucibacillary patients, but is meaning, that the indirect ways of diagnosis mentioned in this paper would be necessary for a long time.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of tuberculosis in childhood]


[Nowadays tuberculosis has already become a rare disease in childhood in Hungary but the danger of the infection is still present for the several thousand (over 3500) disease manifestations among adults. The main task of the pediatricians is prevention, however the disease should be borne in mind in case of unelucidated chronic cases. In suspicion of meningitis basilaris it is necessary to start the treatment at once. Until now the maintanence of the BCG vaccination by age groups (new-born, 11 and 18 years) was justified, but it needs further restriction due to the advance in epidemic situation.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Some problems and characteristics of pulmonary mycobacteriosis in hungary]

KOZMA Dezső, VINCZE Egon, DÁVID Sándor, KISHINDI Katalin, ALEXY György

[360 cases of pulmonary mycobacteriosis caused by atypical mycobacteria were observed between 1980 and 1989. M. xenopi proved to be the most frequent pathogen (in 67% of the cases) followed by M. kansasii and M. avium intracellulare. The disease was common in urban-industrial areas. The yearly incidence of disease has not been increased during the observed period. 86% of patients were male with the mean age of 55 years. Underlying diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic obstructive lung disease were found frequently. The symptoms of the disease were uncharacteristic. Thin-wall cavities with the lack of an infiltrate appeared in 24% of the patients. Malignancy and pulmonary aspergillosis were the two more frequent concomitant diseases. The occurence of lung cancer and also other organ cancers were significant higher among these patients than in the normal population between 40–69 years of age. Findings of histopathology were indistinguishable from tuberculosis among M. kansasii cases. A relative lack of caseousiting necrosis, forced fibrosis, foreign body reaction and abortive granuloma formation appeared among M. xenopi and M. avium-intracellulare cases. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[An update on BCG vaccination]


[Tuberculosis is still a serious and wide-spread disease affecting mainly people living under poor hygienic conditions. Double infections with HIV + M. tuberculosis, however, may worsen the epidemiological situation both in developing and highly developed countries. Since its introduction, BCG vaccine has undergone several changes regarding the production strain and other characteristics. Though, the effectivity of BCG vaccination has been often questioned, it is indisputable that the vaccine protects young children against the disease. In Hungary, lyophilised „Paris" BCG strain has been safely and successfully used for vaccinating new-borns and revaccinating children for 30 years. The tbc incidence of the population under 14 years of age has been very low. Due to the relatively high tbc incidence among adults and the unfavourable tendency in the epidemiology of tbc in the world, however, no changes in the present BCG vaccination schedule are advisable. Moreover revaccination regardless to the tuberculin status should be considered. ]

All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The importance of patient reported outcome measures in Pompe disease]

MOLNÁR Mária Judit, MOLNÁR Viktor, LÁSZLÓ Izabella, SZEGEDI Márta, VÁRHEGYI Vera, GROSZ Zoltán

[In recent decades it has become increasingly important to involve patients in their diagnostic and treatment process to improve treatment outcomes and optimize compliance. By their involvement, patients can become active participants in therapeutic developments and their observations can be utilized in determining the unmet needs and priorities in clinical research. This is especially true in rare diseases such as Pompe disease. Pompe disease is a genetically determined lysosomal storage disease featuring severe limb-girdle and axial muscle weakness accompanied with respiratory insufficiency, in which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) now has been available for 15 years. In our present study, patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for individuals affected with Pompe disease were developed which included questionnaires assessing general quality of life (EuroQoL, EQ-5D, SF36), daily activities and motor performance (Fatigue Severity Score, R-PAct-Scale, Rotterdam and Bartel disability scale). Data were collected for three subsequent years. The PROM questionnaires were a good complement to the physician-recorded condition assessment, and on certain aspects only PROMs provided information (e.g. fatigue in excess of patients’ objective muscle weakness; deteriorating social activities despite stagnant physical abilities; significant individual differences in certain domains). The psychological effects of disease burden were also reflected in PROMs. In addition to medical examination and certain endpoints monitored by physicians, patient perspectives need to be taken into account when assessing the effectiveness of new, innovative treatments. With involvement of patients, information can be obtained that might remain uncovered during regular medical visits, although it is essential in determining the directions and priorities of clinical research. For all orphan medicines we emphasize to include patients in a compulsory manner to obtain general and disease-specific multidimensional outcome measures and use them as a quality indicator to monitor treatment effectiveness.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Expanded Disability Status Scale scoring in patients with multiple sclerosis]


[Gait disturbance is a major symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was first used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis for the assessment of disability, however it has become more and more widely used in clinical practice as well. Nowadays its use is essential in application of the new diagnostic criteria, the new clinical form classification and in monitoring the efficacy of therapies. EDSS is based on a standardised neurological examination, but focuses on those symptoms that are frequent in multiple sclerosis. Based on the examination it assesses seven functional systems: visual, brainstem, pyramidal, cerebellar, sensory, bowel-bladder and cerebral functions. EDSS scores can be determined based on the scores given in the functional systems and on testing the walking distance. In newer versions the “Ambulation score” has been added. This chapter clarifies the scores based on the maximal walking distance and the need for a walking aid to walk this distance. The Neurostatus/EDSS training method improves the reproducibility of the standardised neurological examination that forms the basis of the EDSS scoring. Of the tests assessing walking, the Timed-25 Foot Walk Test and the self-administered 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale are suitable for routine evaluation of walking performance. An increase of more than 20% in the Timed-25 Foot Walk may be considered a significant change in gait. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Long-term follow-up results of concomitant chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant temozolomide therapy for glioblastoma multiforme patients. The importance of MRI information in survival: Single-center experience

LUKÁCS Gábor, TÓTH Zoltán, SIPOS Dávid, CSIMA Melinda, HADJIEV Janaki, BAJZIK Gábor, CSELIK Zsolt, SEMJÉN Dávid, REPA Imre, KOVÁCS Árpád

Introduction - Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary anomaly of central nervous system. The GBM infiltrates the nearly sturctures from the initial tumor and its metastatic attribution is well known. The aim of our single-centered retrospective study was to introduce the importance of postoperative medical imaging confirmation of total tumor resection for patient with GBM combined concomitant and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on a 10 year long patient follow up. Methods - From January 2006 to April 2015 we registered 59 patients with newly diagnosed GBM at the University of Kaposvár Health Center Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology. The histological diagnosis was confirmed by a proficient neuropathologist (World Health Organisation WHO; grade IV astrocytoma). According to histological status if the ECOG performance status of patients allowed it the mutidisciplinary oncoteam recommended adjuvant chemoradiotherapy all features strictly by Stupp protocol. (60 Gy dose on the gross tumor volume and 2-3 cm margin for the clinical target volume with parallel 75 mg/m2 TMZ. Four weeks after monotherapial phase patients had to recieve 6 cycles of TMZ first cycle with 150 mg/m2 up to 200 mg/m2). The irradiation was carried out by a conformal three dimensional planning system. Results - 59 patients with the median age of 63 (range 17-84) year. Our sample counted 34 male patients and 25 woman patients. 14 patients underwent gross total tumor resection while, 39 patients underwent partial resection and the rest from our sample 6 patients passed through biopsy. Statistical analysis showed a lengthier survival among males than females, with a median survival of 13 months for males and females, the OS of 26.209 for males, meanwhile 15.625 for females. However, the difference is not considerable (log-rank p=0.203). Our study found that the estimated survival of patients at least 50 years old is significantly shorter at a median survival of 12 months (log rank p=0.027) than that of patients below 50 years of age at a median survival of 23 months. The longest estimated median survival was calculated with patients of ECOG '0' condition (16 months). However, no significant difference was found in the estimated survival of patients of different ECOG conditions (log-rank p=0.146). Based on the extent of surgery, complete resection resulted in the longest average survival of 36.4 months, followed by 21.5 months among patients with biopsy, and 15.8 months among patients with partial resection. Different surgical procedures, however, did not result in significant differences in survival (log-rank p=0.059). The overal survival of patients who had complete resection confirmed by MRI compared with the overal survival of patients with residual tumor confirmed by MRI as well we can estimate that there is significant difference between these two groups (p=0,004). Conclusion - Despite complex and intense treatment, recurrence is inevitable and causes relatively rapid death. In our analysis complete resection, as defined from the neurosurgeon’s report and postoperative MRI, resulted in an independently significant improvement in OS. Our results are the evidences that the treatment of patients with glioblastoma multiforme in Hungary is at least on the same level as any other developed European countries.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Can we influence the negative drug attitude? Interpretation of the rejection of COVID-19 vaccine in the light of results of a pilot study ]

POGÁNY László , HORVÁTH A. András, LAZÁRY Judit

[Vaccination refusal is a serious obstacle to minimizing the spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the rejection of vaccine can be considered the result of a negative attitude towards medical treatment, and according to our previously published data, it can be influenced by the underlying affective state. Increased incidence of affective disorders and anxiety could be observed globally during the pandemic, which may have a significant impact on vaccination acceptance. The aim of our pilot study was to determine the association between clinical improvement of affective and neurocognitive symptoms and change of drug attitude and health control beliefs in a sample of psychiatric patients. A data set of 85 patients with psychiatric disorder has been analysed with the use of Patient’s Health Belief Questionnaire on Psychiatric Treatment (PHBQPT) with 5 subscales (Negative Aspect of Medication – NA; Positive Aspect of Medication – PA; Doctor health locus of control- Doctor HLOC; Internal HLOC; Psychological Reactance – PR); Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-Anx; HADS-Dep) and neurocognitive tests, such as the Stroop test and the Trail Making Tests. All the tests were performed before and after a 14 days treatment. Paired t-tests and generalized linear models were performed to assess the associations between the variables. The baseline scores of NA and HADS-Anx correlated significantly (p=0.001) and after two weeks of treatment NA decreased (p=0.001), while Doctor HLOC and Internal HLOC increased (p=0.001 and p=0.006). The patients performance of the neurocognitive tests improved (all p<0.05). The reduction of HADS-Anx (p=0.002) and HADS-Dep (p=0.006) scores showed significant associations with the decrease of NA. Increase of the PA score was associated with reduction of HADS-Dep (p=0.028). Improvement of neurocognitive functions had no effect on PHBQPT scores. Important conclusions can be drawn regarding the rejection of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the associations found between the intensity of affective and anxiety symptoms and the attitude towards treatment. Our findings suggest that affective symptoms have a negative influence on the attitude towards treatment and that the improvement of these symptoms can facilitate the acceptance of the therapy, regardless of diagnosis. The modest effect of the improvement of neurocognitive functioning on the attitude towards drugs and the significant role of affective-emotional factors suggest that the accep­tance of vaccination probably cannot be facilitated solely with the aid of educational programs. Considering the increasing incidence of affective disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic, the screening of affective and anxiety symptoms and treatment of these disorders could be an important step towards the acceptance of the vaccine. Although psychiatry is not considered as a frontline care unit of the COVID cases, more attention is needed to pay on the availability of mental health services because refuse of vaccine can develop due to affective disorders too.]