Lege Artis Medicinae

[Handling of conflicts through mediators]

DÓSA Ágnes

MAY 20, 2001

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2001;11(05)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Selective abortion in twin pregnancies discordant for congenital fetal anomaly]

PATKÓS Péter, HRUBY Ervin, PAPP Csaba, TÓTH-PÁL Ernő, PAPP Zoltán

[INTRODUCTION - In special cases of twin pregnancy where one of the fetuses is affected by severe congenital anomaly or disease confirmed with prenatal diagnostic methods and the other fetus is healthy, selective abortion has been accepted as the method of choice for twenty years to save the healthy sibling and to improve its life expectations. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The authors present their clinical experience of the past 15 years from 14 cases of selective abortion performed in twin pregnancies discordant for congenital fetal anomaly. Indication for the intervention was the anomaly of the second fetus in eleven cases and the anomaly of the first twin fetus in three cases. RESULTS - Out of eleven selective abortions performed on the second twin fetus, only one ended with the loss of the entire pregnancy. All three cases of selective abortion performed on the first twin fetus resulted in abortion of the entire twin pregnancy. All ten surviving fetuses were born living and healthy, followed by unharmed infant and childhood development. CONCLUSIONS - To offer the possibility of selective abortion to the parents seems to be indicated only in those cases of twin pregnancy where the discordant fetal disease or congenital anomaly is severe, placentation is dichorionic or at least diamniotic and where the second twin is affected.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Molecular morphological methods in laboratory medicine]

BALÁZS Margit, ÁDÁNY Róza

[Today, the increasing technical arsenal of molecular morphology has not only methodological importance, but also a revolutionary role in diagnostic laboratory medicine. Techniques previously used only in basic research have become widespread in routine diagnostics by now. The development of methodology for detection of genetic alterations has enabled laboratory tests not only to define disease associated pathobiochemical alterations, but also to identify the genetic background of diseases as well. Evolution of these methods caused qualitative changes not only in detection of disease specific alterations, but also in revealing increased individual susceptibility (sometimes at population level) indicating genetic predisposition to the disease. Recently, the classical methodology based on genetic microscopic morphology has been gradually supplemented or even replaced by different in situ hybridization techniques in many laboratories. Using these techniques chromosomal alterations in cells and tissues (including tumor cells) can be detected within one day (or maximum 1-2 days) without in vitro manipulation of cells. These improved techniques allow us to monitor chromosomal changes after the treatment of genetic diseases or define these alterations induced by environmental exposures.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnostic problems of ischemic colitis]

DEMETER Pál, SIKE Róbert, SZÉKELY György, KISS Sándor, SZILVÁS Ágnes

[Ischemic colitis is mainly caused by the impaired circulation of the inferior mesenteric artery. Most frequently it occurs as part of general arteriosclerotic disease or impaired left ventricular function, but it may also occur after abdominal aortic reconstruction. In connection with cocaine users, thrombophylia and vasculitis can also happen among young patients. Colonoscopy plays the most important role in making the diagnosis. In case of transitional ischemia conservative treatment is recommended, but surgery is needed in the progressive gangrenous form or when stricture in the colon developed. Authors describe the case of an 80-year-old man and discuss the etiology, clinical aspects, classical and up-to-date methods of diagnostics and the possibilities of conservative treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The memory of Pal Gyulay]

KAPRONCZAY Károly

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Quentin Massys and a puzzling portrait of Paracelsus]

NÉMETH István

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Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

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Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

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Increased serum citrullinated histone H3 levels in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke

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Prevalence of acute ische­mic stroke (AIS) is increased in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A proposed hypothesis is increased virus-induced propensity to hypercoagulation resulting in arterial thrombosis. Our aim was to provide evidence regarding the involvement of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) in COVID-19 related AIS. Twenty-six consecutively enrolled COVID-19+ pneumonia patients with AIS, 32 COVID-19+ pneumonia patients without AIS and 24 AIS patients without COVID-19 infection were included to the study. Clinical characteristics of recruited patients were collected. Serum levels of citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit; a factor of NETosis), IL-8 and C5a (mediators associated with NETosis) were measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). H3Cit levels were significantly higher in COVID-19+ AIS patients, whereas all study groups showed comparable IL-8 and C5a levels. There were no significant differences among etiological subgroups of AIS patients with or without COVID-19. AIS patients with COVID-19 showed relatively increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, D-dimer, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels than control groups. H3Cit levels did not correlate with clinical/prognostic features and inflammation parameters. H3Cit and IL-8 levels were correlated in COVID-19 patients without stroke but not in COVID-19 positive or negative AIS patients. Increased levels of inflammation parameters and H3Cit in COVID-19 related AIS suggest that NETosis may cause susceptibility to arterial thrombosis. However, H3Cit levels do not correlate with clinical severity measures and inflammation parameters diminishing the prognostic biomarker value of NETosis factors. Moreover, the link between IL-8 and NETosis appears to be abolished in AIS.

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