Lege Artis Medicinae

[Children's toys]

NÉMETH István

DECEMBER 23, 1992

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1992;2(12)

[Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525/28-1569), also known as 'Peasant Brueghel', was a pioneer in the history of both landscape and life painting, which became a genre in its own right in the 16th century. His art, rooted in the Christian humanist spirit of his time, but with many innovations in form and content, represents a transition between Hieronymus Bosch and the Dutch realists of the 17th century.]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cephalosporins in the nineties]

GRABER Hedvig

[The cephalosporin group is the largest and most widely used family of antibiotics in the nineties. According to their antimicrobial activity, the cephalosporin derivatives are classified as three generations; in Hungary seven parenteral and three oral compounds are available, while some newer ones are under registration. The chemistry and antimicrobial spectra of the cephalosporins are presented, as well as the main problems of bacterial resistance. Pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and clinical indications of the individual compounds are discussed. The importance of critical use is emphasized.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Regionally Organized Cardiac Key European Trial]

MATOS Lajos

[Nisoldipine reduced ST-segment depression and the frequency of silent ischaemic periods compared with placebo, but this did not reach the level of statistical significance. The active agent did not affect the diurnal distribution of ischaemic signs and did not improve exercise capacity.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[New trends in the nonpharmacological therapy of atrial fibrillation]

KEMPLER Pál, LITTMANN László

[Atrial fibrillation is the most common of all sustained cardiac arrhythmias, and it is often resistant to medical therapy. This paper summarizes ourcurrent understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation, surveys the factors which have led to the development of nonpharmacologic therapy, and describes the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures. Potential new research directions are presented. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[International Nifedipine Trial on Antiatherosclerotic Therapy]

MATOS Lajos

[ The coronarograms showed that neither the number nor the extent of atherosclerotic lesions observed in the first study changed appreciably over three years in either the nifedipine or placebo group. However, the incidence of new lesions was significantly lower in the active drug group than in the placebo group (0.59 vs 0.82/patient; -28%). Side effects were significantly more frequent in patients taking nifedipine (55/173) than in the placebo group (16/175; p<0.03).]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Acute porphyrias]

TASNÁDI Gyöngyi, NAGY László

[Acute porphyrias - acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria and plumboporphyria – are due to lowered activity of the enzymes of the heme biosynthesis. All of them are inherited as autosomal dominants. From the pathobiochemical and clinical points of view there are 4 phases of the disease: genetic phase, compensated latent and decompensated latent phases and the generally life-threatening acute at tack. The clinical symptoms are caused by peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, which are primarily induced by various precipitating factors: in part by endogenous hormones but mainly by drugs, alcohol and severe infections. The diagnosis is based on measurement of the activities of the enzymes and porphyrins and their precursors in urine and feces. The therapy includes the use of glucose infusions administered in large doses and haematin. However the most effective mode of treatment is to prevent the acute syndrome. It is crucial to recognize the disease in the earliest (genetic) phase because in this way it is possible to avoid inducing factors. 91 patients are under permanent control and care by the authors, but there are many more patients in Hungary according to European estimates. Discovery of these patients would serve prevention.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The Effects of the Children’s Temperament and their Parents’ Dental Fear on developing Dental Fear]

APRÓ Zoltán, NÉMETH Anikó

[The aim the present study was to assess the level of dental fear among 5-7 years old children and its correlations with dental-hygienic habits and their temperament. Furthermore, the relationship of the dental fear of parents and children was also analysed. This cross-sectional study was conducted by the means of a self-constructed questionnaire in 2017. The responses of 70 people were analysed with the help of SPSS 22.0; descriptive statistics, 2-sample T-probes, Mann-Whitney probes, analyses of variance and correlations were calculated (p<0.05). High level of dental fear was detected by 30% of the included children. There was no correlation between the dental fear of the parents and their children’s. Dental fear had no effect on the frequency of tooth-brushing. Children’s dental fear had no correlation with either previous painful experiences at the dentist’s or the temperament of the child. Dental fear is present among children and not only family but dental hygienists might play an important role in reducing it. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Is the implementation of Vojta therapy associated with faster gross motor development in children with cerebral palsy? ]

SANZ-MENGIBAR Jose Manuel , MENENDEZ-PARDIÑAS Monica , SANTONJA-MEDINA Fernando

[Vojta therapy has been reported as clinically beneficial for strength, movement and gross motor activities in individual cases and is being included within the second of three levels of evidence in interventions for cerebral palsy. The goal of this study is to understand the effect of Vojta therapy on the gross motor function. Our clinical trial followed a one group, pre-post design to quantify rates of changes in GMFM-88 after a two-months period undergoing Vojta therapy. A total of 16 patients were recruited. Post-intervention acceleration rates of GMFM-88-items acquisition (0.005; p<0.001) and Locomotor Stages (1.063; p<0.0001) increased significatively following Vojta the­rapy intervention. In this study, Vojta therapy has shown to accelerate the acquisition of GMFM-88-items and Loco­motor Stages in children with cerebral palsy younger than 18 months. Because functional training was not utilised, and other non-Vojta therapy intervention did not influence the outcome, Vojta therapy seems to activate the postural control required to achieve uncompleted GMFM-88-items. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Sleep habits among preschool- and schoolchildren]

FUSZ Katalin, RITECZ Bernadett, BALOGH Brigitta, TAKÁCS Krisztina, SOMLAI Eszter, RAPOSA L. Bence, OLÁH András

[Objective - Our aim is to evaluate sleep habits, sleep quality and influencing factors among preschool- and schoolchildren. Method - Two questionnaires were recorded. Questionnaire 1 dealt with sleeping habits, breastfeeding and health behavior of preschool children and infant, and it contained the abbreviated version of the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Questionnaire 2 dealt with health behavior and the application of sleep hygiene rules, as well as it contained the Athens Insomnia Scale. Subjects - We assessed a total of 1063 questionnaires: 516 kindergarten children participated in our online survey across the country; 547 primary and secondary school students participated in the 2nd questionnaire survey in Szolnok. Results - Parents’ observation shows that the average nighttime sleeping time of kindergarten children is 10 hours 20 minutes on weekdays and 10 hours 36 minutes on weekends. The most popular sleeping habits in kindergarten age: teal reading (65.1%) and co-sleeping (42.8%). Parents of infants used breastfeeding (50.4%) and rocking (43.2%) most frequently before sleep. Co-sleeping has a positive influence on the length of lactation. Among the preschool sleeping habits we have proved a number of positive effects of teal reading, while watching television have negative effects. The sleep quality of school-age children according to the Athens Insomnia Scale is 6.11 points (SD: 4.11), 19% of the children are insomniac. Their sleep time is 7 hours 31 minutes on weekdays and 9 hours 30 minutes on weekends. The usage of good health behavior and sleep hygiene rules positively influence sleep quality and sleep duration. Conclusions - With our results, we would like to draw the attention of children and parents to the importance of sleeping and using sleep hygiene rules.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Family planning in multiple sclerosis: conception, pregnancy, breastfeeding]

RÓZSA Csilla

[Family planning is an exceptionally important question in multiple sclerosis, as women of childbearing age are the ones most often affected. Although it is proven that pregnancy does not worsen the long-term prognosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, many patients are still doubtful about having children. This question is further complicated by the fact that patients – and often even doctors – are not sufficiently informed about how the ever-increasing number of available disease-modifying treatments affect pregnancies. Breastfeeding is an even less clear topic. Patients usually look to their neurologists first for answers concerning these matters. It falls to the neurologist to rationally evaluate the risks and benefits of contraception, pregnancy, assisted reproduction, childbirth, breastfeeding and disease modifying treatments, to inform patients about these, and then together come to a decision about the best possible therapeutic approach, taking the patients’ individual family plans into consideration. Here we present a review of relevant literature adhering to international guidelines on the topics of conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, with a special focus on the applicability of approved disease modifying treatments during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The goal of this article is to provide clinicians involved in the care of MS patients with up-to-date information that they can utilize in their day-to-day clinical practice. ]