[Gout therapeutics: new drugs for an old disease]


JULY 20, 2011

LAM KID - 2011;1(01)



Further articles in this publication


[New findings in the cortical bone biology and its role in bone fractures]


[The authors surveyed the already known factors responsible for the osteoporotic bone fragility. Then the results of using modern imaging techniques (micro-CT, high-resolution peripheral computed quantitative tomograph - HR-pQCT) and advanced computer analytic methods (finite element analysis, FEA) are presented. These data - beyond the already known fracture risk factors (age, risk of falling, bone mineral density - BMD, and fine structure damage of trabecular bone) are stressing the importance of the (micro)damage of cortical bone as a fracture risk factor, which has been still underrated. The cortical thickening and increased porosity - verified on various population samples - are increasing the risk of fractures in certain subgroups of subjects having identical BMD values, even among those, who are considered only osteopenic by the earlier classification based on BMD values. Backed with modern software batteries, the new imaging techniques are expected to enter clinical application in the near future. Pharmacologic agents with stronger cortical effect are already available and research is continuing to find new drugs to use in the management of osteoporotic patients of high fracture risk.]


[New approaches to the treatment of osteoporosis]


[Osteoporosis is a significant health care problem, and its treatment is of major interest. Despite of the wide spectrum of therapeutical modalities, the effective cure for all forms of this condition has not yet been developed. For this reason, the focus is on the development of new pharmacological approaches. The RANK/RANKL/OPG system discovered one and a half decades ago provides a tool for the neutralization of the osteoclast-stimulating RANKL by the use of monoclonal antibodies. Catepsin-K inhibitors offer another pathway for the inhibition of bone degradation. Anti-sclerostin and anti-Dkk-1 antibodies may stimulate bone formation by the release of Wnt signal transduction system. Other administration methods for PTH analogs, new generations of selective estrogen receptor modulators and antibodies against vitronectin receptors as well as potential new drug targets will enable us to fight bone loss more efficiently.]


[Calcium supplementation and the risk of cardiovascular disease - Real apprehension or picking the spin?]


[Some data shows that calcium supplementation, a basic intervention for treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, may increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Coronary artery calcified plaque is a marker for atheromatous plaque burden and predicts future risk of cardiovascular events. However, the deposition of calcium into the vascular wall is due to an active mechanism, involving such genes and proteins which play role in bone metabolism. In this work the data about the cardiovascular side effect of calcium supplementation are reviewed. Also, I demonstrate studies with the conclusions that calcium supplements with or without vitamin D do not increase the risk of cardiovascular events, especially that of myocardial infarction.]


[The concept of adherence and its significance in osteoporosis]


[Today, in relation to the economical aspects of medical therapies, the patterns of patients’ drug taking have come into focus. One of the important indicators is adherence, which consists of four different concepts concerning faithfulness to therapy: acceptance, concordance, persistance and compliance. In chronic diesases, medical therapy without a certain degree of adherence is no more useful than no therapy at all. A number of international clinical studies show that in osteoporosis, the therapy can only lead to a decrease in the number of fracture in case of sufficient adherence.]


[FREEDOM study - The effect of denosumab in the prevention of bone fractures]

VALKUSZ Zsuzsanna, SZEKERES László

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Hypertension and nephrology

[About the care of patients with hyperuricaemia and gout]

[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Risk of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Focus on aceclofenac]


[Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently used pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, a number of studies emphasized that NSAIDs were damaging not only the gastrointestinal (GI), but also the cardiovascular (CV) system, could increase the blood pressure, the frequency of coronary events (angina, myocardial infarction) and stroke incidence, as well as they might deterio­rate renal functions. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) did not find evidence that administering NSAIDs could increase the risk of developing COVID-19 or worsened the condition of COVID-19 patients. However, unwanted effects of specific drugs differ substantially in their occurrence and seriousness as well. It seemed to be for a long time that the NSAIDs provoked higher GI-risk was closely related to the COX1/COX2 selectivity, like the cardiovascular (CV) risk to the COX2/COX1 selectivity, however, the recent data did not prove it clearly. Based on the available literature while pondering the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events, among all NSAIDs the aceclofenac profile seemed to be the most favourable.]