Clinical Neuroscience

[Society of Környey’s Fellows]

CZOPF József

JUNE 20, 2003

Clinical Neuroscience - 2003;56(05-06)



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Abstracts of the 2nd Pannonian Symposium on CNS Injury]

[Abstracts of the 2nd Pannonian Symposium on CNS Injury 2003;56(05-06)]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Combined anterior and posterior approach to the tumours of the cervicothoracic junction: our experience]


[Introduction - In the past, surgery of the pathologies of cervicothoracic junction carried high risk. Better knowledge of the anatomical situation and the increasing experience with anterior approach, corpectomy and spinal stabilization instruments have all made possible to remove the tumours of the cervicothoracic junction in a combined way. Case reports - The authors present six cases of spinal tumours where removal was done via anterior approach with partial clavicle and sternal resection. In two cases the anterior approach were combined with posterior tumour removal and fixation. Two of the cases were metastatic tumours, one lymphoma, one osteochondroma, one giant cell osteoid tumour and one malignant neurogenic tumour. The ventral approach gave a relatively wide window to explore the tumours and with the help of the operative microscope the tumour removal went fairly well. After total removal of the tumours the cervical spine were stabilized with own clavicle or iliac bone graft, titanium plate and screws. In patients with three-column involvement posterior fixation was made. The immediate recovery of the patients was well and there were no postoperative complications. Postoperative CT and MRI scans have great value in the early control after surgery as well as for the follow up of the patients. Conclusion - The anterior approach with partial clavicle and sternal resection combined with posterior approach and fixation seems to be feasible and safe method to explore and remove cervicothoracic junction pathologies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Asymptomatic ischemic cerebrovascular disorders and neuroprotection with vinpocetine]


[The asymptomatic ischemic cerebrovascular disorders (AICVD) is an early manifestation of cerebrovascular disease. It is also known as latent insufficiency of the cerebrovascular circulation or as asymptomatic cerebrovascular disorders. Recently, the term subclinical disease, detected noninvasively, has been introduced by American Heart Association. The diagnosis is based on the following criteria: evidence of vascular risk factors; episodic nonspecific complaints without any focal cerebral symptoms; mild cognitive deficit, detected by neuropsychological tests; carotid ultrasonography often shows intimal-medial thickening, atherosclerotic plaques and carotid stenosis; CT and MRI occasionally reveal silent cerebral infarctions, white matter hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy; regional hypoperfusion above the ischemic threshold is also seen by rCBF measurements. Treatment of the AICVD, modifying the vascular risk factors and using neuroprotective agents, should be the cornerstone of primary prevention of ischemic stroke and cognitive decline, caused by cerebrovascular disorders. Vinpocetine has been found to interfere with various stages of the ischemic cascade: ATP depletion, activation of voltagesensitive Na+- and Ca++-channels, glutamate and free radicals release. The inhibition of the voltage-sensitive Na+- channels appears to be especially relevant to the neuroprotective effect of vinpocetine. Pronounced antioxidant activity of the drug could also contribute to the neuroprotection. PET studies in primates and man showed that 11C labelled vinpocetine passes the blood-brain barrier rapidly. Heterogeneous brain distribution of the compound was observed mainly in the thalamus, basal ganglia, occipital, parietal and temporal cortex, regions which are closely related to the cognitive functions. PET studies in chronic ischemic stroke patients revealed favourable effects of vinpocetine on rCBF and glucose metabolism in the thalamus, basal ganglia and primary visual cortex. It seems, vinpocetine, affecting the multiple mechanisms of the AICVD, could be of benefit for the treatment in this early stage of cerebrovascular disease. Vinpocetine may also become a new therapeutic approach to prophylactic neuroprotection in patients at high risk of ischemic stroke.]

Clinical Neuroscience


[Congress calendar 2003;56(05-06)]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Is there any importance of the Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke?]

PONGRÁCZ Endre, TORDAI Attila, CSORNAI Márta, BÉLA Zsuzsanna, NAGY Zoltán

[Background - There are conflicting data about the role of Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of cerebral arterial thrombosis. In order to obtain relevant data, authors investigated the prevalency of factor V Leiden (A506G) both in healthy subjects and in a subgroup of ischaemic stroke patients. Matherial and methods - Blood samples of 171 healthy persons and 254 ischaemic stroke patients were examined by PCR method for Leiden mutation. Ischaemic lesions in the stroke group were documented by CT or MRI. A routin questionnaire was used to study the family history of vascular events (hypertension, diabetes, POAD, stroke, myocardial infarction) of patients. Conventional vascular risk factors of patients were also documented. Results - The prevalence of Leiden mutation was 7.2% in healthy persons and 11.9% in stroke patients. The OR for 254 patient was 1,45 (0.71-2.97). In the subgroup of young patients: age <50 (n=134) the OR was 1.67 (0.75-3.70) and in the elderly patients group: age >50 (n=120) the OR was 1.21 (0.50-2.89). In the family history of stroke patients having Leiden mutation (hetero- and homozigosity) the stroke prevalence was higher (p=0.01). In the ischaemic stroke group, age<50 with polymorphism a tight correlation with hyperlipidaemia (p=0.03) was found. In the group of age<50 with heterozigosity for Leiden, a lower plasma fibrinogen concentration (p=0.02) was found. The polymorphism showed no correlation with the hypertension, hyperuricaemia, migraine, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption and CDS status of patients. Conclusion - When comparing stroke patients to control population there is no significant increase in the frequency of Leiden mutation. Leiden mutation together with hyperlipidaemia and stroke in the family history results in high risk for ischaemic stroke in young patients.]

All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer and non-Alzheimer dementias


In aging societies, the morbidity and mortality of dementia is increasing at a significant rate, thereby imposing burden on healthcare, economy and the society as well. Patients’ and caregivers’ quality of life and life expectancy are greatly determined by the early diagnosis and the initiation of available symptomatic treatments. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have been the cornerstones of Alzheimer’s therapy for approximately two decades and over the years, more and more experience has been gained on their use in non-Alzheimer’s dementias too. The aim of our work was to provide a comprehensive summary about the use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimers’s dementias.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Consensus statement of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenic Society about the therapy of adult SMA patients]

BOCZÁN Judit, KLIVÉNYI Péter, KÁLMÁN Bernadette, SZÉLL Márta, KARCAGI Veronika, ZÁDORI Dénes, MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[Background – Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neuromuscular disorder resulting in a loss of lower motoneurons. Recently, new disease-modifying treatments (two drugs for splicing modification of SMN2 and one for SMN1 gene replacement) have become available. Purpose – The new drugs change the progression of SMA with neonatal and childhood onset. Increasing amount of data are available about the effects of these drugs in adult patients with SMA. In this article, we summarize the available data of new SMA therapies in adult patients. Methods – Members of the Executive Committee of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenetic Society surveyed the literature for palliative treatments, randomized controlled trials, and retrospective and prospective studies using disease modifying therapies in adult patients with SMA. Patients – We evaluated the outcomes of studies focused on treatments of adult patients mainly with SMA II and III. In this paper, we present our consensus statement in nine points covering palliative care, technical, medical and safety considerations, patient selection, and long-term monitoring of adult patients with SMA. This consensus statement aims to support the most efficient management of adult patients with SMA, and provides information about treatment efficacy and safety to be considered during personalized therapy. It also highlights open questions needed to be answered in future. Using this recommendation in clinical practice can result in optimization of therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiovascular prevention 2021 – Guidelines of European Society of Cardiology 2021. General principles]


[On 31 August 2021, the European Society of Cardiology published its guideline “Prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice”. This guideline provides a comprehensive review about risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, their assessment, potential modifiers, treatment and prevention of the cardiovascular disease itself at societal and individual levels respectively. The previous guideline issued 2016, had to be updated due to the recent significant advances in risk prediction of cardiovascular disease on atherosclerotic background and due to the beneficial effects of treatment, emerging new drugs and therapeutic targets. The risk assessment system has undergone a major overhaul and now predicts the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events together over a 10-year horizon and over a lifetime. In the new guideline, age plays a more important role in risk classification than before. The risk assessment and staged management of apparently healthy people or patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and other specific diseases or conditions are detailed. The positive impact of influencing risk factors, the years of life gained can recently be presented in a lifetime perspective, which will help to make an individually tailored decision on the extent of interventions, taking into account also the patient'’s preferences.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[May measurement month: analysis of the Hungarian results of years 2017 and 2019]

NEMCSIK János, PÁLL Dénes, JÁRAI Zoltán

[Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are not only the leading causes of mortality in Hungary, but also the mortality rate is excessively high compared with the average of European Union, so screening programs identifying subjects with elevated blood pressure (BP) is of utmost importance. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global initiative which began in 2017 aimed at raising awareness of high BP. Hungary, through the Hungarian Society of Hypertension has joined the campaign of MMM from the beginning. The results of years 2017 and 2019 are presented in this paper. ]