Clinical Neuroscience

[Primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society - Part II Controlled prospective study of short term efficacy]

SOMHEGYI Annamária, TÓTH János, MAKSZIN Imre, GARDI Zsuzsa, FESZTHAMMER Artúrné, DARABOSNÉ Tim Irma, TÓTHNÉ Steinhausz Viktória, TÓTHNÉ Szabó Klára, VARGA Péter Pál

MAY 10, 2005

Clinical Neuroscience - 2005;58(05-06)

[Introduction - The primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society is set around 12 test exercises that assess performance of postural muscles and then develops their strength and flexibility. By this the scheme aims to make the biomechanically correct use of the spinal column spontaneous. Subjects and methos - The application of the scheme in the frame of physical education in a primary school was investigated in a prospective controlled study in the school-year of 2001/2002. Participating children were aged 6 to 14. The intervention group (n=200) regularly did the posture correction exercises with their teacher's direction in physical education classes, while the control group (n=213) did not. The 12 test exercises of the posture correction scheme of the Hungarian Spine Society were tested by an independent physiotherapist at the beginning and at the end of the school-year in both groups. Results were analyzed by paired and unpaired t-tests and by a chi-square test. Results - At the end of the school-year the strength and flexibility of the postural muscles of the intervention group improved significantly compared both to their own performance (p<0.01) at the beginning of the school-year and to the control group. Test results of the control group were significantly (p<0.05) worse at the end of the school-year than their own results at beginning of the school-year, and were more significantly (p<0.01) worse than the test results of intervention group. Conclusion - The results of the controlled study confirm that regular use of the preventive exercises in physical education improves the strength and flexibility of postural muscles. In order to analyze the results concerning specific muscle groups or age groups a detailed study with age- and gender-matched controls will be necessary.]



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[The authors report a comprehensive publication consisting of three parts going into the details of history, prevalence, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, genetics, molecular pathomechanism, pathology, clinical diagnosis and treatment of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The first part of the present review deals with history, prevalence and clinical forms of FTD. The prototypical FTD with circumscribed atrophy was first described by Arnold Pick; Alois Alzheimer found the intraneural inclusions in the patients’ brain. Later it was recognised that many patients had neither the atrophy nor the cellular changes, but genetic mutations have been identified. Frontotemporal dementia is a degenerative condition with unknown etiology in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain. It is a progressive neurobehavioral syndrome characterized by early decline in social interpersonal conduct, early impairment in the regulation of personal conduct, early emotional blunting, and early loss of insight. There are no reliable epidemiological studies on the prevalence of FTD, but it is well-accepted that FTD is a common cause for dementia before the age of 65 (it constitues approximately five percent of all irreversible dementias). The nomenclature of the FTD has been confusing and continues to be. Three major clinical syndromes can be identified: 1 frontal variant FTD (dementia of frontal type) in which changes in social behavior and personality predominate, 2. in semantic dementia (progressive fluent aphasia) there is a breakdown in the conceptual database which underlies language production and comprehension, 3. in progressive nonfluent aphasia the phonologic and syntactic components of language are affected. The authors report two cases, which can point to clinical symptoms and forms, and mention the problems of the differential diagnosis and therapy.]

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[Primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society - Part I. Scientific background of the posture correction exercise scheme]

GARDI Zsuzsa, FESZTHAMMER Artúrné, DARABOSNÉ Tim Irma, TÓTHNÉ Steinhausz Viktória, SOMHEGYI Annamária, VARGA Péter Pál

[The primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society aims to increase awareness of the need to develop and automatically maintain a biomechanically correct posture for all school children. The biomechanically correct posture is a dynamic balance based on a correct middle position of the pelvis and on muscle balance. In this position three important anatomical points - the left and right anterior superior iliac spines and the upper medial point of the pubic bone - form one frontal plane. From side-view the imaginary weight median of the body crosses the 2nd to 5th lumbar and the 2nd to 5th cervical vertebral bodies. When the muscles involved in posture are in balance, their strength and flexibility are just appropriate for the almost continuous work required against gravity. In case of static and/or dynamic under- or overload tonic muscles become shortened, and phasic muscles become stretched, and are no longer able to work optimally. Since many muscles and muscle parts that are involved in normal posture maintenance are not satisfactorily challenged in regular physical exercises and sport activities, the preventive exercise scheme of the Hungarian Spine Society aimed to involve these rarely used muscles in special strengthening and stretching exercises. The scheme is based on 12 test exercises that assess the strength and flexibility of postural muscles. A person who is able to do all test exercises correctly has no problem with his or her muscle balance. In order to counteract the harm caused by sedentary lifestyle already in childhood, regular use of this posture correction scheme in physical education starting from preschool throughout the school-years is recommended for all children.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.