Clinical Neuroscience

[Pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment of insomnias with regard to sleep medicine]

FALUDI Béla, ROZGONYI Renáta

MAY 30, 2018

Clinical Neuroscience - 2018;71(05-06)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.71.0149

[Insomnia - one of the most prevalent sleep complain - has a great impact on the everyday life. Basically two different form of insomnia can be defined: the insomnia disorder and the co-morbid insomnias. To treat adequately determination of background pathology is essential, which is based on the help of Sleep Medicine Centers. According to the newest guidelines, the treatment of insomnia disorder is based on cognitive behavioural therapies followed by pharmaceutical intervention. In this review we provide the short description of cognitive behavioural therapies and basic principles of hypnotic drugs. Despite the availability of insomnia guidelines the huge variation of the insomnia medication can be seen in the daily practice. Due to the above mentioned reasons we summarize the good clinical practice of hypnotic drug administration for insomnia patients.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of ischemic stroke patients with systemic cancer

UFUK Emre, TASKIN Gunes, IREM Pinar, FURUZAN Kokturk, ESENGUL Liman, ORHAN Yağiz

Purpose - In cancer patients, an ischemic stroke can be seen as both a direct effect of cancer and a complication of treatment. This condition can negatively affect the follow-up and treatment of these patients. For this research, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features, stroke types and etiological features of ischemic stroke patients with histories of cancer or found to have cancer during the aetiological investigation. Materials and methods - We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients (57 males, 43 females) who were hospitalized with acute stroke and determined to have the presence of cancer or a cancer history during the aetiological investigation between 2011 and 2016. All the demographic features, stroke types and localizations, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, Rankin Scale scores, durations of cancer and cancer treatments were recorded. Results - The mean age of the patients was 67.07 ± 10.9 years old, the median NIHSS score was 5, and the median Rankin Scale score was 4. While 79% of patients had ischemic stroke risk factors, 21% did not. Atherosclerotic stroke was the most common stroke type (49%, n=49) and cryptogenic strokes were detected in 21% (n=21). In addition, 63% of the patients had chronic cancer (later than 6 months), 31% of the patients had recent cancer histories (less than 6 months), and 29% of the patients had metastases. Among all the malignancies, lung cancer (n=23), gastrointestinal cancer (n=20) and gynaecological-breast cancer (n=16) were the three most common. Moreover, 37% of the patients underwent chemotherapy, 29% underwent radiotherapy, and 88% of the patients had Carotid/Vertebral Doppler USG abnormalities. Conclusion - Similar to what is stated in the literature, an atherosclerotic stroke was the most common type of stroke in the cancer patients. Stroke risk factors were not detected in 21% of the patients, and in the majority of the patients, atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery were observed in the Doppler examinations. In the aetiology and prognosis of ischemic stroke, it is important to keep in mind the existence of cancer in addition to the classical stroke risk factors.

Clinical Neuroscience

Retrospective comparison of efficacy of levetiracetam and lacosamide add-on treatments in patients with partial onset seizure

ACAR Türkan, ARAS Guzey Yesim

Objective - The study aims to retrospectively compare the efficacy of lacosamide (LCS) and levetiracetam (LEV) in add-on treatment in patients with partial-onset epilepsy. Material and method - Patients who have been followed-up for at least one year due to diagnosis of partial epilepsy between September 2014 and December 2017 and who had no seizure control, despite using at least two antiepileptic monotherapies, and therefore undergone LEV or LCS add-on treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Of the patients, total number of seizures and seizure control rates 6 months before and 3 and 6 months after the add-on treatment were compared. Results - There was no statistically significant difference between the 30 patients in the LEV group (12 females, 18 males, mean age 29.7±6.6) and 28 patients in the LCS group (12 females, 16 males, mean age 28.2±6.4) in terms of age, gender and the duration of illness. When the LEV and LCS groups were evaluated separately, the mean number of seizures within 3 and 6 months after the add- on treatment were significantly lower than the mean number of seizures in the last 6 months before the add-on treatment (p<0.005 and p<0.005 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups when compared with each other in terms of the rate of decrease in number of seizures and seizure control before and after the add-on treatment (p=0.445 and p=0.238, respectively). Conclusion - LCS appears to be as effective as the currently well-established LEV in the treatment of partial onset seizures. No comparative study was found in the literature similar to this subject matter. There is a need for prospective studies for the comparison of the efficacies of these two drugs.

Clinical Neuroscience

Is stroke indeed a “Monday morning disease”?

FOLYOVICH András, BÉRES-MOLNÁR K Anna, GIMESI-ORSZÁGH Judit, KATONA Lajos, BICZÓ Dávid, VÖRÖS Károly, GŐBL Gábor, AJTAY András, BERECZKI Dániel

Introduction - The therapeutic time window of acute stroke is short. Decision on the use of intravenous thrombolysis is based on well-defined criteria. Any delay in the transport to a designated stroke centre decreases the odds of therapeutic success. In Hungary, the admission rate of stroke patients peaks on Monday, the number gradually decreasing by the end of the week. This phenomenon has long been suggested to be due to the lack of emergency care approach. According to the literature, however, returning to work following a holiday is a risk factor for acute stroke. A similar phenomenon is well-known in veterinary medicine, a condition in horses referred to as ‘Monday morning disease’. In our study, we analysed the distribution of admissions due to acute stroke by the day of the week in 4 independent data sources. Patients and methods - The number of patients admitted to the Szent János Hospital, Budapest, Hungary with stroke and that of emergency ambulance transports in the whole city of Budapest due to acute stroke were analysed in the period between January 1 and March 31, 2009. The distribution of thrombolytic interventions reflecting hospitalizations for hyperacute stroke was analysed based on data of the Szent János Hospital in 2009-2012, and on national data from 2006-2012. Descriptive statistics was used to present the data. The variation between daily admission was compared by chi-square test. Results - The proportion of daily admission of stroke patients admitted to the Szent János Hospital was the highest at the beginning of the week (18% on Monday, and 21% on Tuesday) and the lowest on the weekend (9% and 9% on Saturday and Sunday, respectively). The distribution of ambulance transports in Budapest due to acute stroke tended to be similar (15% and 15% on Monday and Tuesday, whereas 13% and 12% on Saturday and Sunday, respectively) on different days of the week. No such Monday peak could be observed in a single centre regarding thrombolytic interventions: 18% and 19% of the total of 80 thrombolytic interventions in the Szent János Hospital were performed on Monday and Sunday, respectively. At the national level the higher Monday rate is obvious: during a 7-year period 16.0%, 12.7%, and 13.5% of all thrombolytic interventions in Hungary were performed on Monday, Saturday and Sunday, respectively. Conclusion - Monday preference of stroke is not exclusively caused by the lack of emergency care approach, and the phenomenon is not consistent at the individual hospital level in cases undergoing thrombolysis.

Clinical Neuroscience

What is the real effect of pregabalin in patients with diabetic neuropathic pain? (Do patients suffer from less pain or do they less care about it?)

CAGDAS Erdogan, NEDIM Ongun, SELIM Tümkaya, HAKAN Alkan, NEŞE Öztürk

Objectives - Depression and anxiety are frequent in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetic neuropathic pain. The pain seems to be more severe in patients in whom depressive findings accompanied pain symptoms. Pregabalin was reported to have positive effects on anxiety and depression. This brings out the question, whether the pain relief effect of pregabalin is due to its analgesic effect or to its effects on mood? The aim of this study is to find out whether the positive effect of pregabalin in patients with diabetic neuropathic pain is limited to its effect on pain. Thus the question - do patients suffer from less pain or do they less care about pain? - should be answered. Methods - With this aim the NRS scores of 46 patients with diabetic neuropathic pain, whose HADS scores did not change with pregabalin treatment were compared with their baseline levels, retrospectively. Results - The NRS scores of the group were reduced with pregabalin treatment. Conclusion - This results suggests that the reduced pain in pregabalin treatment should be independent from its effects on depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Relationship between patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke in a retrospective hospital-based study]

BÖJTI Péter Pál, BARTHA Noémi Eszter, MAY Zsolt, BERECZKI Dániel, FÜLÖP Szilvia, SZAKÁCS ZOLTÁN, SZILÁGYI Géza

[Objective - After routine workup, 23-25% of ischemic strokes etiology remains unknown, i.e. cryptogenic. However, according to international results pathogenic patent foramen ovale (PFO) reveals in 25% of these cases. Aim of our retrospective study to prove the substantial etiological role of PFO-related stroke (PFO-RS) in cryptogenic strokes (CS), and to identify age related differences in stroke etiology. Methods - All new ischemic strokes of 2014-2015 were classified by ASCOD (Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac pathology, Other, Dissection) phenotyping. CS was defined when the etiology was unknown. With the help of special ultrasound techniques and RoPE (Risk of Paradoxical Embolism) score the portion of PFO-RS were determined in the examined CS population. Moreover, etiological distribution and differences between age groups (<40, 40-60, >60 years) were described. Results - During the examined period, 8.12% of 985 new ischemic strokes were categorized as CS. 41.38% of examined CS were found to be PFO-related. PFO-RS were considerably more frequent in the younger age groups than in the older age groups. The probability of appearance of PFO-RS were significantly higher in younger age than in case of age independency. Our results verify the substantial etiological role of PFO-RS in CS, and confirm the essential role of contrast enhanced functional transcranial Doppler in the routine diagnostic workup. Age related differences in stroke etiology were found to be statistically significant (p=0.000, df=14), in which small-vessel disease, cardiac pathology, dissection, other pathologies, CS and PFO-RS were contributed significantly. Based on our results, till in young age rare etiologies are typical, while in older age classical etiologies are mainly characteristic.]

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