Clinical Neuroscience

[Parkinsonism 1994 Some thoughts from the 11th International Parkinson's Disease Symposium]


MAY 20, 1994

Clinical Neuroscience - 1994;47(05-06)

[The aim of this summary is to review some of the therapeutic considerations made at the 11th International Symposium on Parkinson's Disease (Rome).]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

Transoral and anterolateral surgery of the cervical spine in ventral extradural pathological processes

EMIL Pásztor

This paper is a shortened version of an invited lecture given at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, on 17th September, 1993, illustrated with 120 slides.

Clinical Neuroscience

Correlation of clinical and molecular genetic findings in malignant brain stem tumors

V. K. Ammon, U. Sure, DN Louis, V. Deimling A.

Brain stem gliomas are rare, predominantly pediatric tumours. Histologically, they are comparable to adult supratentorial astrocytomas. Most of the pediatric brain stem tumours were classified as low-grade astrocytoma (WHO II), anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO III) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO IV). Survival of patients with malignant brain stem gliomas as WHO grade III and IV rarely exceeds more than two years. Recently developed molecular genetic techniques gave new insights in tumour biology. Oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes are genetic alterations which can cause tumorous transformation and furthermore malignant progression. Molecular genetic studies of malignant brain stem gliomas have rarely been investigated. Therefore, we set out to study 12 such tumours clinically and 2 by molecular biological methods.

Clinical Neuroscience

Simultaneous occurence of unilateral multiplex meningiomas and syringomyelia

BÜKI András, MÉSZÁROS István, KÖVÉR Ferenc, KASÓ Gábor

Long lasting intracranial hypertension is considered to be a major pathogenic factor of syringomyelia in patients with a Chiari malformation or posterior fossa tumor.

Clinical Neuroscience

Different autoregulatory responses in the cerebellar cortex, neocortex and subcortical gray matter of the rat to systemic hypo- and hypertension


Cerebral autoregulation was investigated in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, and subcortical gray matter (caudate nucleus) of the rat by means of Laser-Doppler flowmetry. As the vascular architecture of the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellar cortex have substantial geometrical, onto genetical and pathological differences (3), we tested the working hypothesis that autoregulation of the blood supply to these areas may also be different. Laser-Doppler flowmetry has an ideal time resolution, and it enables analysis of flow-pressure curves (1, 2). The dependency of autoregulation on the rate of change in systemic blood pressure (SABP) in all three regions were confirmed. Control of CBF was significantly different in the subcortical gray matter and the neocortex. Interestingly, no autoregulatory capacity of the cerebellar vasculature was found.

Clinical Neuroscience

Epidermoid tumours of the posterior fossa

K. Bálint, F. Slowik, M. Kordás, J. Juhász, J. Julow

In opposite of the benign biological behaviour of the posterior fossa epidermoids the operation of these tumours a great challenge for the surgeon both theoretical and surgical point of view. We analysed our 14 operated cases clinico pathologically in this retrospective study.

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Vaccines against COVID-19 pandemic]


[The rapidly spreading SARS-CoV2 respiratory virus has evoked an epidemic with serious aftermath around the world. In addition to the health effects, the global economic damage is actually unpredictable. At the same time, the pandemic has launched a series of unprecedented collaborative scientific research, including the development of vaccines. This study summarizes up-to-date information on vaccines, immune memory, and some emerging clinical effects.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]


[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[History of vaccine production in Hungary ]


[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]