Clinical Neuroscience

[A visual based proto-consciousness model of human thinking]

SZŐKE Henrik1, HEGYI Gabriella2, CSÁSZÁR Noémi3, VAS József Pál4, KAPÓCS Gábor5, BÓKKON István3,6

JANUARY 30, 2016

Clinical Neuroscience - 2016;69(01-02)


[Background and objectives – Here we present our results of many years of research on the visual (pictorial) representation model expanded with some new ideas in a simplified form. Our goal is to make available our new pictorial model for a broader scientific community and to point to its possible importance in the future. Method – Own scientific publications, selective literature analysis and preliminary experiments. Results – Our several scientific publications and preliminary experiments were presented outlining our new molecular visual representation model as brain might be able to generate internal images by regulated biophotons in early V1 retinotopic visual regions. We also proposed that some of symptoms and characteristics of autism and savantism may suggest that visual (pictorial) thinking might be a possible cognitive model in the case of healthy people as well. Our model can present a uniform molecular basis for many visual related phenomena. Conclusions – It is possible that a so-called visual proto-consciousness might be developed in evolution, which is directly related to the retinotopic visual areas, and which has a different cognitive ability from verbal abilities. If our model can be exactly proved it presents a common molecular basis for various visual phenomena such as visual perception and imagination, phosphenes ect. and might open new ways in several fields of science such as visual prosthesis for the blind, artificial intelligence, visual neuroscience, cognitive and autism research.]


  1. Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Egészségtudományi Kar, Egészségtudományi Doktori Iskola, Pécs
  2. Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Egészségtudományi Kar, Komplementer Medicina Tanszék, Pécs
  3. Pszichoszomatikus Ambulancia, Budapest
  4. Szent Ferenc Kórház, Pszichoterápiai Rehabilitációs Osztály, Miskolc
  5. Pszichiátriai Betegek Otthona Szentgotthárd, Szentgotthárd
  6. Vision Research Institute, Neuroscience Department, Lowell, MA 01854 USA



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According to the WHO fact sheet depression is a common mental disorder affecting 350 million people of all ages worldwide. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique which allows the investigator to stimulate and study cortical functions in healthy subjects and patients suffering from various mental and neurological disorders. In the early 1990s, studies revealed that it is possible to evoke long term mood changes in healthy volunteers by rapid rate repetitive, TMS (rTMS) over the frontal cortex. Subsequent studies involving depressed patients found frontal cortical rTMS administered daily to be clinically effective. In the past two decades, numerous trials examined the therapeutic potential of rTMS application in the treatment of mood disorders with constantly evolving treatment protocols. The aim of this paper is to review the literature of the past two decades, focusing on trials addressing the efficacy and safety of rTMS in depressed patients. Our primary goal is to evaluate the results in order to direct future studies which may help investigators in the development of treatment protocols suitable in hospital settings. The time is not far when TMS devices will be used routinely by practitioners primarily for therapeutic purpose rather than clinical research. To our knowledge, a widely accepted “gold standard" that would offer the highest efficacy, with the best tolerability has not been established yet. In order to approach this goal, the most important factors to be addressed by further studies are: localization, frequency, intensity, concurrent medication, maintenance treatments, number of pulses, trains, unilateral, or bilateral mode of application.

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