Lege Artis Medicinae

[Fair play?!]

BODA Domonkos

JUNE 01, 2000

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2000;10(06)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Infectiosus diseases - Past, present, future]


[The complex interactions between microorganisms and humans include the well known, traditional infectious diseases and also the symbiotic relationship with the human endogenous normal flora. Forty years ago everybody was convinced that medicine would soon be able to eradicate most of the infectious diseases. Perception of victory over infectious diseases has been blunted in recent years by nosocomial infections and by the new and re-emerging diseases. The spectrum of infectious diseases is expanding and many of those once thought conquered are increasing in numbers. Moreover, the problems of infection are present in all aspects of medicine and with the field turning more and more complex its challenge for practitioners has become increasingly demanding. It is now clear, that at the dawn of the new millennium infectious disease remains the number one killer in the world. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Practical aspects of screening for microalbuminuria in diabetic patients]


[INTRODUCTION - The importance of measuring microalbuminuria is well established, however, controversy still exists regarding the type of urine specimen to be used for detecting early renal impairment of diabetic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS – To evaluate practical aspects, albumin concentration and albumin to creatinine ratio of first void urine samples as well as urinary albumin excretion in timed specimens were determined by immunoturbidimetric method 3 times within 3 weeks in 192 adult diabetic patients (136 men, 56 women; type 1/type 2: 90/102; age: 51.4=10.8 years; duration of diabetes: 15.3+9.1 years; body mass index: 27.9+4.6 kg/m2; HbA1c: 8.5+1.5 %; actual blood pressure: 13814/82+8 mmHg; serum creatinine: 94+20 umol/l; x+SD). RESULTS - According to the urinary albumin excretion values, one third of patients (31.2%-30.7%-34.4%) were normoalbuminuric (<30 mg/24 hours), more than half of the patients (55.8%-57.3%-53.6%) proved to be microalbuminuric (30-300 mg/24 hours), while the remaining group of patients (13.0%-12.0%–12.0%) was macroalbuminuric (>300 mg/24 hours). Comparing the results of successive measurements good correlation was found between the same laboratory values (urinary albumin excretion: K=0.64; K=0.67; urinary albumin concentration: K=0.60; K=0.62; albumin to creatinine ratio: K=0.54; K=0.61; first vs. second and second vs. third measurements, respectively). The percentage of patients being in the same range of albuminuria (i.e. normo-, micro-or macroalbuminuria) at successive measurements was 79.7-81.2% with urinary albumin excretion values, 77.1-77.6% with urinary albumin concentration and 74.5-78.6% with albumin to creatinine ratio. Good correlations were found between urinary albumin excretion and urinary albumin concentration (K=0.54; 0.54; 0.57) and nearly the same correlations were observed between urinary albumin excretion and albumin to creatinine ratio (K=0.49; 0.47;0.54) at different series. Using values of urinary albumin excretion for comparison at all measurements, 79.3% sensitivity and 69.5% specifity were found for urinary albumin concentration whereas 74.6% sensitivity and 68.8% specifity were documented for albumin to creatinine ratio. CONCLUSION - Beside the standard measurement of urinary albumin excretion in timed urine samples, the use of the more convenient morning urinary spot collection could also provide useful results (urinary albumin concentration or albumin to creatinine ratio) for detecting early renal involvement in diabetic patients. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Hypertension And BPH Intervention Trial]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Postnatal development of the human hippocampal formation]


[Jean Piaget's theory suggests that cognitive development proceeds in discrete steps. The first is the sensorimotor period that happens in the first two years of life. In recent years it became clear, that it is necessary to have an intact and mature hippocampus for adequate memory formation, both in experimental animals and humans. In the present study, the morphological development of the human hip pocampus was correlated with the developmental changes of intellectual development. Our results suggest that neuronal cell formation of the human hippocampus terminates several weeks before birth. In the dentate gyrus, a small number (less than 1%) of granule cells are still formed around birth. Immature granule cells migrate through the hilar region to their final position in the granule cell layer during the first six postnatal months. Light microscope studies of individual neurons indicate that connections between granule cells and their target neurons are not yet formed at birth. Such connections develop during the third postnatal year. If the development of the synaptic connections is damaged in experimental animals, the hippocampal function will be permanently impaired. Newborns may have basic synaptic circuits for memory formation, but the postnatal morphological changes suggest the significant modification of the hippocampal circuits happening continuously from the newborn age until late childhood. These changes may cause the phenomenon of the "infantile amnesia". ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

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Related contents

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Correlations Between Burnout and Socio-demographic and Workplace Related Factors Among Health-care Workers During The Covid-19 Pandemics]


[The present study aimed to assess the level of burn-out among health-care workers in 2020 and its correlations with socio-demographic and workplace related factors. The cross-sectional study was conducted by the means of a self-constructed online survey in the beginning of 2021. The responses of 1965 people were analysed with the help of SPSS 23.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis probes were run (p<0.05). Severe burnout was present in 46.7% of the responders. Age, marital status, type of health-care provided and years spent in the health-care system didn’t show any correlation with burnout. Unsure vision, opinion about salary raise and uncertainty at the workplace influenced the level of burnout significantly (p<0.000). The mental health of health-care workers is in continuous decline, in which the COVID-19 pandemic might play a big role. People with worse mental health feel more uncertain regarding their future and job; this might make providing health-care more and more difficult.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Operational Efficiency Investigation from APN Perioperative Perspective]


[In the healthcare system operating theatres have to put great emphasis on quality work, patient safety and efficiency as well, and to achieve this, optimal utilization of theatres is extremely important. The results of researches in this topic in Hungarian and international literature draw attention to a lot of aspects. The study of perioperative periods, and the evaluation of the analysed processes show that theatres could be operated more effectively. As a result of this, more operations could be carried out and waiting time would also reduce. In order to increase the efficiency of the processes, APNs can play a prominent role at several points. According to the experience, the number of people using health care and the number of people waiting for surgery is increasing, which is further increased by the development of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) epidemic. Thereby, patients are not satisfied with the service. The work of APNs would also help increasing the contentment of patients during the operation procedures. Taking advantage of the multifunctional role of the nurse due to her knowledge and training, she actively participates in the operation, in the smooth running of the scheduled daily surgical program and contributes to the reduction of the number of missed, planned surgeries.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The Effects of the Children’s Temperament and their Parents’ Dental Fear on developing Dental Fear]

APRÓ Zoltán, NÉMETH Anikó

[The aim the present study was to assess the level of dental fear among 5-7 years old children and its correlations with dental-hygienic habits and their temperament. Furthermore, the relationship of the dental fear of parents and children was also analysed. This cross-sectional study was conducted by the means of a self-constructed questionnaire in 2017. The responses of 70 people were analysed with the help of SPSS 22.0; descriptive statistics, 2-sample T-probes, Mann-Whitney probes, analyses of variance and correlations were calculated (p<0.05). High level of dental fear was detected by 30% of the included children. There was no correlation between the dental fear of the parents and their children’s. Dental fear had no effect on the frequency of tooth-brushing. Children’s dental fear had no correlation with either previous painful experiences at the dentist’s or the temperament of the child. Dental fear is present among children and not only family but dental hygienists might play an important role in reducing it. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[RAAS inhibitors therapy – COVID-19 pandemic]


[Acute respiratory syndrome with various signs and outcomes caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the biggest challenge facing health systems worldwide today. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and kinin-kallikrein systems and within these two endopeptidases (ACE and ACE2) play a crucial role in the developing clinical feature of COVID-19. Adverse effects of the ACE-stimulated Ang II/AT1R axis (oxidant, pro-inflammatory effect, vasoconstriction) are counterbalanced by the ACE2-induced AT2R and MasR activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effect, vasodilation). The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and systemic inflammation explains the impairment of ACE2 (as an important defence factor of the lungs) caused by the biding spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2, which decreases the ACE2 levels. In parallel, bradykinin production also increases and intensifies the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm through the BKB1 and BKB2 receptors. Since the RAAS inhibitors (ACEI, ARB) affect the two regulatory systems and enzymes at different sites and to different degrees, their role must urgently have been clarified in the COVID-19 since their use is essential and general of many population-wide diseases (hypertension, cardiovascular, renal and metabolic conditions). Based on pathophysiological and experimental data, it is reasonable to hypothesize that in COVID-19 with comorbidities, especially in the elderly, the decreased ACE2 expression may be restored by RAAS inhibitors and the missed or reduced protective effect may be revitalised. This protective effect applies to both RAAS inhibitors. Clinical trials clearly support the declared opinion of many international societies that the use of RAAS inhibitors does not increase the risk of the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in itself let alone the severe and critical cases. Accordingly, initiated RAAS inhibitor therapy not only may rather must be continued during the development of COVID-19.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Treatment options for enormous carotid thrombus as a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection]

KONCZ Júlia, OROSZ Viktor, SULYOK Zoltán, ANDRÁS Emőke, KÁDÁR Balázs, OLÁH Csaba

[In SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with corresponding neurological symptoms the presence of carotid bifurcation macrothrombus should always be considered. Hypercoagulopathy caused by viral endotheliitis, systemic inflammation and cytokine storm play an important role in its development. Here we present two patients treated with different treatment strategies because of carotid bifurcation macrothrombus as a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In both cases, the soft macrothrombus was eliminated and the patients’ neurological condition were improved. Intravenous thrombolysis, acute carotid stenting with embolic filter protection device and mechanical thrombectomy with aspiration are effective treatments.]