Specialities

Cardiology

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 29, 2021

[Primary aldosteronism, the mysterious object of desire – in the context of a study]

BAJNOK László

[The aldosterone-producing adenoma, aldosteronoma, the actual Conn syndrome, is a relatively well-defined entity, while the separability of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism and low-renin primary hypertension appears to be inherently uncertain according to our current knowledge. In this way, the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) is in fact more or less probabilistic and this also contributes fundamentally to the uncertainty of prevalence data. These are confirmed by a recent study in which PA was evaluated in the form of 24- hour urinary aldosterone excretion measured with oral salt loading instead of the standard technique. The paper has contributed to the change of paradigm by which the chair of the most widely accepted PA guideline, renewed in 2016, called to be jettisoned much of it.]

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 29, 2021

[Case report of supine hypertension and extreme reverse dipping phenomenon decades after kidney transplantation]

BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Zita Beáta, NEMCSIK János

[Supine hypertension, a consequence of autonomic neuropathy, is a rarely recognized pathological condition. Reported diseases in the background are pure autonomic failure, multiple system atrophy, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes and different autoimmune disorders. In our case report we present a case of supine hypertension which developed in a patient decades after kidney transplantation. The patient was followed for 25 months and we demonstrate the effect of the modification of antihypertensive medications. At the time of the diagnosis supine hypertension appeared immediately after laying down (office sitting blood pressure (BP): 143/101 mmHg; office supine BP: 171/113 mmHg) and on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) extreme reverse dipping was registered (daytime BP: 130/86 mmHg, nighttime BP: 175/114 mmHg). After the modification of the antihypertensive medications in multiple times, both office supine BP (office sitting BP: 127/92 mmHg; office supine BP: 138/100 mmHg) and on ABPM nighttime BP improved markedly (daytime BP: 135/92 mmHg, nighttime BP: 134/90 mmHg). In conclusions, our case report points out that autonomic neuropathy-caused supine hypertension and extreme reverse dipping can develop in chronic kidney disease, after kidney transplantation. The modification of the antihypertensive medications can slowly restore this pathological condition.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

APRIL 23, 2021

[Benefits of SGLT-2 inhibitors: beyond glycemic control]

BALOGH Zoltán, SIRA Lívia

[In the recent years, according to international and Hungarian guidelines, in addition to lifestyle modification, metformin is the preferred initial glucose-lowering drug for most people with type 2 diabetes, if not contraindicated. Sodium glucose co­transporter-2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce progression of chronic kidney disease, or kidney failure, as well as the risk of hospitalizations for congestive heart failure and (mainly in secondary prevention) cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes. For major adverse cardiovascular events and for the renoprotection, there seems to be no class effect. On the other hand, a class effect of sodium glucose co­transporter-2 inhibitors is evident for hospitalization for heart failure. In this review the authors summarize novel data about sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and about their new perspectives in the near future.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

[Sudden death – ECG – hypertension]

KÉKES Ede

[Sudden death (HH) is not only associated with coronary heart disease or heart failure, but is also present in hypertension, primarily associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic pressure, and age. Co-morbidities of hypertension (diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and renal failure) contribute greatly to its development. HH occurs due to ventricular fibrillation, or asystole. The auther demonstrates depolarization and repolarization pathologies leading to HH and detectable on the ECG and their characteristic ECG patterns. He also emphasizes the importance of resting heart rate and heart rate variability.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

[Prevalence and treatment of hypertension in patients with newly diagnosed familial hypercholesterolemia]

NÁDRÓ Bíborka, DIÓSZEGI Ágnes, KOVÁCS Beáta, PARAGH György, PÁLL Dénes, HARANGI Mariann

[Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited defect of cholesterol metabolism characterized by high plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease risk. Prevalence of hypertension in FH is not clarified, but its appearance is independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, optimal treatment has a major priority in this high-risk population. We aimed to investigate the lipid parameters and evaluate the presence of hypertension and its treatment characteristics in 86 newly diagnosed, untreated heterozygous FH patients (27 males, 59 females, mean age 53.6±13.4 years). We diagnosed FH by using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. The mean TC level was 8.49±1.7 mmol/l, the mean LDL-C level was 6.11±1.5 mmol/l, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 1.62±0.5 mmol/l, while the median lipoprotein (a) level was 301 mg/l. We diagnosed 33 FH patients (38.4%) with hypertension. Beta blockers were used in 23, ACE-inhibitors in 13, ARBs in 12, calcium channel blockers in 9, and HCT in 11 cases. 11 patients was treated with monotherapy, for 10 patients double, for 11 patients triple, while for 1 patient quadruple combined antihypertensive therapy was administered. Based on our results, hypertension might be underdiagnosed in this specific patient population. Neither the types nor the combination patterns of blood pressure lowering agents are in line with current guidelines. Up to date screening and treatment of hypertension should be worth considering in this extremely high risk population with enhanced atherosclerosis.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

[Gender differences in sport-adaptation of intramural coronary resistance arteries]

TÖRÖK Marianna

[Biomechanical and functional remodeling of coronary resistance arteries in physiological left ventricular hypertrophy has not been analyzed yet, and the possible sex differences are unknown. We aimed to study the biomechanics and function of these arteries during an exercise intervention. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: male and female sedentary controls (MSe and FSe) and male and female animals undergoing a 12-week intensive swim training programme (MEx and FEx). After the training sessions, LV morphology and function were checked by echocardiography, the coronary artery biomechanics and function were examined by pressure arteriography. Elastica remodeling was studied in resorcin-stained histological sections. The female animals had enhanced heart weight/body weight ratio compared to male rats. A similar outer radius and reduced inner radius resulted in an elevated wall-to-lumen ratio in the MEx and FEx animals compared to the sedentary controls. The wall elastic moduli increased in the MEx and FEx rats. The spontaneous tone and TxA2 agonist-induced tone was raised only in ExF animals, whereas the endotheliumdependent relaxation became more effective in ExM rats. Arteries of ExF rats had stronger contraction, whereas arteries of ExM animals had improved dilation. Range of coronary vascular reactivity increased in both exercised male and female rats, but its mechanism was different depending on sex. According to our results the coronary arterioles adapted to an elevated load during long-term exercise and this adaptation depended on sex. The observed sex differences in the biomechanics and function of the coronary resistance arteries of rats may contribute to better understanding of the physiological and pathological function of these arteries in active and retired athletes.]