Search results

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 20, 2014

[Local importance of Hantavirus infections in mirror of the latest virological, epidemiological and clinical results]

NÉMETH Viktória, OLDAL Miklós, SEBÕK Judit, WITTMANN István, JAKAB Ferenc

[Hantaviruses are widespread infectious agents carried by different rodent species. The majority of them belongs to viral zoonotic pathogens, sometimes causing severe human infections. Hantaviruses inflict hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and supposedly in Africa, and hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome in the Americas. The relationship between the virus and its host species is a result of a several million year co-evolution. Although virus replication is most intense in the infected rodents' lungs, these animals do not develop disease, instead they carry and spread the pathogens throughout their lifetime by body fluids. In the majority of infections, the virus gets into the human body by vaporization of rodent body fluids or by direct contact. In Europe, Puumala (PUUV) and Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) hantaviruses are the most abundant hantaviral infectious agents. There are numerous studies described the presence of different genotipes of hantaviruses circulating in Hungary. Although the number of clinical and epidemiolgical studies are limited, the medical importance - especially in a high risk population - of these viruses are unqustionable. There are a variety of methods to identify hantaviral infections. Molecular biological methods (RT-PCR) - also enabling genotyping - and virus neutralization tests proved to be the most reliable tools. The latter technique requires virus culturing, which can only be carried out in high-containment laboratories.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 20, 2012

[Current status of the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in Hungary]

KÖDMÖN Csaba, SZABÓ Nóra, NAGY Erzsébet

[In the past decade, the epidemiological status of tuberculosis has significantly improved in Hungary. The incidence is today lower than 20 per 100 000 inhabitant, therefore, the laboratory network performing diagnosis needs to look for new challenges. As the yearly number of cases decreases, less examinations will be needed, but a greater emphasis should be placed on shortening the time needed for diagnosis, more efficient culturing, resistance tests and molecular typing performed for epidemiological purposes. Our aim is to provide an overview of the status of the diagnostic network of tuberculosis in Hungary and the future challenges it faces, on the basis of data published by the National Korányi Institute of TBC and Pulmonology and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JANUARY 20, 2012

[Complex pathological diagnosis of breast cancer and the patient care based on it over the past 20 years]

CSERNI Gábor

[The diagnosis of breast cancer has become more complex in the past 20 years. Intraoperative diagnosis has been mostly replaced by multidisciplinary preoperative/ nonoperative diagnostics. Surgical treatment can be planned in advance for the breast as well as for the axilla. In many cases, routinely performed radical surgery has been replaced by selectively applied, less radical, conservative operations (sectoral or wide local excisions, sentinel lymph node biopsy) that are suitable for smaller tumours mostly detected by screening. In addition to prognostic markers listed in the pathology reports (lymph node status, tumour size, vascular invasion, status of resection margins), an increasing emphasis has been placed on predictive markers (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, HER-2, basal and proliferation markers) that allow molecular typing of breast carcinomas and that mostly influence systemic treatment. Tools to predict the efficiency of treatment have become increasingly available, and these might also help in planning neoadjuvant therapies, a modality which has also been introduced in the past 20 years. The present article gives a brief, subjective, thematic insight into some of these changes, selected on the basis of their relation to the pathological diagnosis of breast carcinoma.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 20, 2004

[IDENTIFYING HELICOBACTER PYLORI WITH DNA-BASED ASSAYS]

RUZSOVICS Ágnes, MOLNÁR Béla, TULASSAY Zsolt

[The DNA-based assays have the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori DNA. Markers used include general H. pylori structures and pathogenetic factors like ureaseA, cagA, vacA, iceA. DNA or bacterial RNA for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays can be collected from gastric biopsy, gastric juice, stool, buccal specimens. PCR can yield quantitative and genotyping results with sensitivity and specificity that approaches 100%. A clear trend in the direction of the determination of quantitative H. pylori infection by real-time PCR can be observed. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are suggested for routine antibiotic resistance determination. To identify the DNA structure of organism and its virulence factors may be feasible by using oligonucleotide microarray specifically recognising and discriminating bacterial DNA and various virulence factors. DNA based H. pylori diagnosis yields higher sensitivity, however, specificity requires sophisticated labour environment and associated with higher costs.]

Hungarian Immunology

APRIL 20, 2003

[Immunophenotyping of mature cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas with leukemic clinical manifestation - newer approaches]

PÁLÓCZI Katalin, NÉMETH Julianna, BÁNYAI Anikó, GOPCSA László

[Immunophenotyping is commonly used in evaluating malignancies of the lympho-hemopoietic system and its use in various disease states of mature lymphoid leukemias and related non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas is reviewed here. The major goals of immunophenotyping in mature lymphoid neoplasias are the assignment of abnormal cells to the B or T/NK linkage, their maturational analysis, and the characterization of specific phenotypes which might be helpful for the subclassification of disease. There is not known, however, any lymphoma (leukemia) -specific antigen and the individual type of lymphoid leukemias and lymphomas does not follow the antigen expression profile of normal differentiation. Therefore, the approach to analysis of lymphoid neoplasias requires thoughtful utilization of laboratory testing, in order to meet both medical and economic goals of the laboratory and caregivers. The interpreter should expect to see a pattern of both positive and negative immunoreactivities that is appropriate to the final interpretation. The value and type of information provided by immunophenotyping in these malignancies varies and this paper outlines approaches for clinicians and laboratorians to follow when reviewing clinical data. The future for this technology is outstanding because it is the only one available today that can both rapidly and accurately measure multiple correlated cell properties. However, combined clinical-laboratory approach to diagnosis and prognostication seems to be important including traditional and newer (molecular genetic, molecular biology) methodologies.]