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Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2016

Stress-induced corticosterone rise maintain gastric mucosal integrity in rats

LUDMILA Filaretova, MARINA Myazina, TATIANA Bagaeva

Background - To investigate contribution of glucocorticoids to the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity during stress we predominantly used ulcerogenic stress models. Using these models we demonstrated that glucocorticoids released in response to the ulcerogenic stimuli attenuated their harmful action on the gastric mucosa. Purpose - In the present study we hypothesized that mild stressors does not damage the gastric mucosa due to gastroprotective action of glucocorticoids released in response to these stressors. Methods - To verify the hypothesis the effects of normally non-ulcerogenic mild stimuli (15-30 min cold-restraint) on the gastric mucosal integrity have been studied under the circumstances of inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenocortical axis in rats. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was inhibited by: 1) fast inhibitory action of metyrapone, inhibitor glucocorticoid synthesis; 2) fast inhibitory action of NBI 27914, the selective antagonist of cortricotropin- releasing factor receptor type 1; 3) delayed inhibitory action of a single pharmacological dose of cortisol injected one week before the onset of stress stimulus. Results - Each of these pretreatments significantly decreased 15-30 min cold-restraint-produced corticosterone levels: 37.2±1 vs 22.5±1.2 (p<0.05) after metyrapone; 52.1±0.9 vs 41.4±1 (p<0.05) after NBI, and 64.2±4.2 vs 16.7±1.5 (p<0.05) after cortisol pretreatment. The inhibition of stress-induced corticosterone rise resulted in an ap - pearance of gastric lesions after the onset of these mild stressors in rats. Conclusions - The results suggest that in rats with inhibited stress-induced corticosterone rise normally non-ulcerogenic stimuli are transformed into ulcerogenic ones and confirm the hypothesis. The findings further support for the point of view that glucocorticoids released during acute stress are gastroprotective factors.

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 10, 2016

[Plasma ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio predicts hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in dialyzed patients]

KUN Szilárd, MIKOLÁS Esztella, MOLNÁR Gergő Attila, SÉLLEY Eszter, LACZY Boglárka, CSIKY Botond, KOVÁCS Tibor, WITTMANN István

[Objectives: Patients suffering from end-stage renal failure (ESRF) are mostly treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). They often show hyporesponsiveness to ESA, which condition is associated with elevated production of free radicals. Phenylalnine (Phe) is converted into para- and ortho-tyrosine (p- and o- Tyr) by hydroxyl free radical. o-Tyr is produced exclusively in this way. However, physiological isomer p-Tyr is formed in significantly higher amounts by phenylalaninehydroxylase, mainly in the kidney. It has been shown that p-Tyr production is decreased in ESRF. As a result, p-Tyr can be replaced by o-Tyr in proteins, e.g. in proteins playing part in signal transduction of erythropoietin. We aimed to study the association of different Tyr isoforms with ESA-responsiveness. Methods: Four groups of volunteers were involved in our cross-sectional study: healthy volunteers (CONTR; n=16), patients on hemodialysis without ESA-treatment (non-ESA-HD; n=8), hemodialyzed patients with ESA-treatment (ESA-HD; n=40) and patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD; n=21). Plasma p-, o-Tyr and Phe levels were detected using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-method, with fluorescence detection. ESA-demand was expressed as ESA-dose, ESAdose/ body weight and erythropoietin resistance index1 (ERI1, weekly ESA-dose/body weight/hemoglobin). Multivariate regression models were used to examine predictors of ESA-demand. In these models, most of the known predictors of ESA-hyporesponsiveness were included. Results: Lower p-Tyr levels were found in dialyzed patients compared with control subjects. In contrast, o-Tyr levels and o-Tyr/p-Tyr ratios were higher in dialyzed patients. Regarding dialyzed patients, o-Tyr level and o-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio were higher in ESA-HD than in non-ESA-HD and CAPD groups. Weekly ESA-dose/body weight and ERI1 correlated with o-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio (r=0.441, p=0.001; r=0.434, p=0.001, respectively). Finally, o-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio proved to be an independent predictor of ERI1 (β=0.330, p=0.016). Discussion: Our results suggest that elevation of o-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio could be responsible for ESA-hyporesponsiveness in dialyzed patients.]

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 10, 2016

[Rilmenidin - a versatile combination partner in the treatment of high blood pressure]

KÉKES Ede

[The rilmenidin as an imidazoline agonist drug strongly decreases the central sympathetic activity, release of renine and the RAS activity. Because of these advantageous properties the peripheral vascular resistance falls and the blood pressure is decreased. Today it is excellent tool for combination therapy. Useful especially in stress induced hypertension. The antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors sor calcium antagonists are increased by rilmenidine. This drug decreases the insuline resistance, it has a positive effect on the carbohydrate and fat metabolism, because it is useful as a complementary therapy in metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus of type II. It is useful in stress induced hypertension, and in menopause as well.]

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 10, 2016

[Hungarian virus research and NASA – nephrology aspects]

RADÓ János

[After the occurrence of varicella viruses remain in a latent condition in the ganglions, but could be reactivated from here causing the disease of herpes zoster. In the years of 1960, we described a herpes zoster „house epidemic” where only the steroid treated patients were infected. Varicella zoster virus was identified by virological methods. Also in a steroid treated patient fatal meningoencephalitis was caused by the generalized herpes zoster. The VZ infection was obviously potentiated by the steroid. Our publications about the interaction between the VZ virus and steroid treatment was echoed – among others – by an editorial of four leading medical journals. Investigators of a NASA medical group also cited our articles. They found during and after spaceflight that in the astronauts symptomless reactivation of the VZ virus, EBV and CMV occurred which was contributed to the stress induced hypercortisolemia. Today we see more worries in the prognosis and outlook in certain cases of the herpes zoster than before. One reason of that is the high number of newly recognized complications. Recently also several new pathway of pathomechanisms has been explored, which led to serious risks. In addition, it turned out that in certain disorders as the artheritis temporalis, where today antivirus antibiotic is the first choice drug, instead of steroid administered alone in the past, inducing further progression in the basic disease and sometimes fatal complications when given too long. Nephrological patients are at special risk in the presence of chronic renal disease, high age and associated diabetes mellitus. The risk may even increase after an otherwise successful renal transplantation in response to the administration of steroids and other compounds. Fortunately in the meantime a vaccine was developed against the VZ virus, studied in large populations and found to be very effective. It probably will be a benediction to the old people with chronic renal disease, after transplantation as well as in others suffering from high risk diseases.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

OCTOBER 20, 2015

[The effects of perceived work-related stress on the life style, health and sleep of nurses]

GÁL-INGES Dóra, NÉMETH Anikó

[Aim of the research: The present study aim to assess how the stress level influences the life style, health and sleep. Research and sampling methods: A self-developed questionnaire was administered online during April and May 2015 (N=556). SPSS 9.0 was used for the data analysis; chi square, independent samples t-test and Spearman’s rank correlation were applied (p<0.05). Results: The higher the level of perceived stress is at work, the worse the self-rated health condition (p<0.001), quality (p<0.001) and quantity (p<0.001) of sleep and dietary habits (p<0.001) are. In the group with higher stress level at work intermittent insomnia (p=0.009) and tired mornings (p<0.001) were more frequent. Participants reported their meals to be irregular (p<0.001) and hasty (p=0.006). There were no significant differences regarding chronic illnesses and addictions compared to the group with lower work-related stress levels. Conclusions: According to these results the level of work-related stress correlates negatively with dietary habits, sleep and self-reported health status. ]

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 10, 2015

[Psychooncology in the everyday practice]

ROHÁNSZKY Magda, PUSZTAFALVI Henriette

[In the past 40 years the progressively growing fi eld of psychooncology has played an increasing role in the multidisciplinary practice of oncology. In this review methods for identifying and treating cancer patients’ psychological challenges will be summarized. Effective psychological interventiones will be discussed, and two methods especially devised for supporting cancer patients (Simonton Training and Mindfulness Based Cancer Recovery) will be introduced. We also deal with the communication traits that affect the doctor-patient relationship, the mental challenges that affect doctors dealing with terminally ill patients, burnout and its prophylaxis.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 05, 2016

[Visibility and quality of life: international literature review of the state of LMBTQ healers]

SZÉL Zsuzsanna, CSEKŐ Csilla, GYŐRFFY Zsuzsa

[BACKGROUND - Mental vulnerability is a well-known problem among healthcare professionals. In additional LGBT physicians’ discriminatory experiences and the exposure of minority stress appear to be a greater risk for health problems. METHODS - We collate researches in English by using search terms “LGBT doctors” “LGBT providers” “LGBT physicians”; “attitudes of nurses”; “attitudes of medical students”; “attitudes of doctors”; “LGBT practitioners”, “homophobia among doctors” „“homophobia among physicians”; “LGBT in medical curricula”, “sexual and gender minority”, “minority stress”. We reviewed findings highlighting the disclosure of orientation, experiences, mental and physical health of LGBT healthcare professionals, and physicians’, nurses’, medical students’ and patients’ attitudes towards LGBT students and physicians. RESULTS - At present conditions of LGBT individuals have gained international attention also in academic conversation. Based on the literature lack of safe, supporting environment seems to be the highest problem for LGBT physicians and medical students. Both in Canada and the USA several steps were made to improve attitudes of medical professionals, and decrease discrimination towards LGBT individuals in healthcare system such as creating more supportive environment by ‘Promoting pride’ and integrating LGBT-related content into medical universities’ curriculum. CONCLUSIONS - Our findings suggest that in Canada and the United States the rate of discrimination have decreased meanwhile transparency of LGBT professionals elevated as a result of antidiscrimination policies and the educational development.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

AUGUST 30, 2015

[The effects of night shifts on nurses]

OFORI-ATTAH Barbara, NÉMETH Anikó

[Aim of the research: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of night shifts on the somatic and psychic health, sleeping habits and substance use of nurses. Research and sampling methods: A self constructed questionnaire was administered online in October 2014 (N=396). Data were analyzed with SPSS 19.0 using descriptive statistics, chi-square and unpaired two-sample t-tests program (p<0.05). Results: Nurses having night shifts evaluated their health as worse (p=0.031), backache (p=0.019) and heartburn (p=0.029) were reported more frequent. They consume significantly more cigarettes (p=0.011). They experience more work related stress (p=0.002) and sleep disorders (p=0.006). Regarding burn-out (p=0.438) and chronic diseases (p=0.061) there was no significant difference between nurses with and without night shifts. Conclusions: Night shifts affect the health and substance use of nurses and disturb their biorhythms. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

AUGUST 30, 2015

[Investigation of the factors infl uencing among members of the care team in terms of the identity of the leadership]

TORNYOSNÉ BAGOSI Melinda, CSERNUS Mariann

[Aim of the research: The objective of the research is to map the different subcultures, examine in detail the role of subgroups and the influencing factors that are determining the relationships between the members of the Institution’s healthcare provider teams. Research and sampling methods: Data and information collection was advisedly planned, guided and implemented with help of personal communication techniques. With regard to the final form of data collection method based on standardized preliminary research plan, I’ve selected partly structured and unstructured interview forms, with closed and open questions. The analysis was performed by interviewing 10 chief physicians and 10 head assistants. Results: 100% of the interviewed leaders related that competencies are determined primarily by skills, human attitudes and personality. The analyzed subjects confirmed that well defined expectations expressed by leaders and open communication is enhancing the close co-operation between team members and is reducing hereby the work stress. The investigation underpinned that good co-operation of team leader couples, or lack of co-operation has strong impact on the team’s performance and on the relationships between team members. Conclusions: Identifying, understanding and handling our own or other people feelings, the behavior with our fellow creatures is matter of emotional intelligence, and not of cognitive capability. With help of deep interviews, valid facts, leadership manners, management of conflict situations were identified and pointed at the influencing factors of department’s micro culture and the work atmosphere of the organization. Diversity of the work, rate of workplace monitoring, rate of qualifications and skills required for the job, quality of interpersonal relationships are contributing to workplace satisfaction and the evolution of team spirit among colleague ]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 10, 2016

[Incorporation of ortho- and meta-tyrosine into cellular proteins leads to erythropoietin-resistance]

MIKOLÁS Esztella Zsóka, KUN Szilárd, LACZY Boglárka, MOLNÁR Gergő Attila, SÉLLEY Eszter, KŐSZEGI Tamás, WITTMANN István

[Introduction: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cell lines. Since it is widely used as the treatment of renal anaemia, EPO-resistance is a common concern. Aims: We aimed to perform in vitro experiments to investigate a possible mechanism of EPO-hyporesponsiveness. Methods: We used a factor dependent erythroblast cell line (TF-1). Two independent observers calculated cell counts simultaneously on day 1; 2 and 3 in Bürker cell counting chambers. Colorimetric method was used to measure protein concentrations. Measurement of protein-bound para-, ortho- and meta-tyrosine was performed with reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. We determined ERK and STAT5 activation using Western blot method. Results: In case of ortho- and meta-tyrosine pretreated cells time-dependent, EPOinduced proliferative activity was decreased compared to the 1.7 fold elevation of cell counts seen in para-tyrosine cultured cells. Protein concentration of ortho- and metatyrosine treated samples was significantly lower than control cells on the third day. Addition of para-tyrosine reclaimed EPO-sensitivity. Erythroblasts treated with orthoor meta-tyrosine contained lower concentrations of protein-bound para-tyrosine with higher ortho- and meta-tyrosine content. EPO dependent activation of ERK and STAT5 could be inhibited by ortho- or meta-tyrosine treatment. Conclusions: Elevated level of protein-bound ortho- and meta-tyrosine in erythroblasts can result in the pathological modification of intracellular signaling, leading to EPOhyporesponsiveness.]