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Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2021

The effects of 30 Hz, 50 Hz AND 100 Hz continuous theta burst stimulation via transcranial magnetic stimulation on the electrophysiological parameters in healthy individuals

OZDEMIR Zeynep, ACAR Erkan, SOYSAL Aysun

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive procedure that uses robust magnetic fields to create an electrical current in the cerebral cortex. Dual stimulation consists of administering subthre­shold conditioning stimulation (CS), then suprathreshold test stimulation (TS). When the interstimulus interval (ISI) is 1-6 msec, the motor evoked potential (MEP) decreases in amplitude; this decrease is termed “short interval intracortical inhibition” (SICI); when the ISI is 7-30 msec, an increase in MEP amplitude occurs, termed “short interval intracortical facilitation” (SICF). Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), often applied at a frequency of 50 Hz, has been shown to decrease cortical excitability. The primary objective is to determine which duration of cTBS achieves better inhibition or excitation. The secondary objective is to compare 50 Hz cTBS to 30 Hz and 100 Hz cTBS. The resting motor threshold (rMT), MEP, SICI, and SICF were studied in 30 healthy volunteers. CS and TS were administered at 80%-120% and 70%-140% of rMT at 2 and 3-millisecond (msec) intervals for SICI, and 10- and 12-msec intervals for SICF. Ten individuals in each group received 30, 50, or 100 Hz, followed by administration of rMT, MT-MEP, SICI, SICF immediately and at 30 minutes. Greater inhibition was achieved with 3 msec than 2 msec in SICI, whereas better facilitation occurred at 12 msec than 10 msec in SICF. At 30 Hz, cTBS augmented inhibition and suppressed facilitation, while 50 Hz yielded less inhibition and greater inter-individual variability. At 100 Hz, cTBS provided slight facilitation in MEP amplitudes with less interindividual variability. SICI and SICF did not differ significantly between 50 Hz and 100 Hz cTBS. Our results suggest that performing SICI and SICF for 3 and 12 msec, respectively, and CS and TS at 80%-120% of rMT, demonstrate safer inhibition and facilitation. Recently, TBS has been used in the treatment of various neurological diseases, and we recommend preferentially 30 Hz over 50 Hz cTBS for better inhibition with greater safety and less inter-individual variability.

Hypertension and nephrology

DECEMBER 19, 2020

[Hypertension aspects of Hungary’s Comprehensive Health Screening Program (MÁESZ) – The first 10 years]


[Screening tests are known in GP practice, but it is also important for the population living away from the test sites to have access to screenings and to know the information that can be obtained. Hungary’s Comprehensive Health Screening Program 2010-2020 is a unique initiative in Hungary and in the world. It is the largest health protection program in Hungary, operating in a humanitarian form, which provides the population with free-of-charge screening with the most modern tools, keeping in mind the importance of prevention. The program is performed by the cooperation of 76 professional organizations, the national program for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases coordinated by the Association of Hungarian Medical Companies and Associations (MOTESZ) on the basis of European Union directives, and by consensual cooperation. In this publication, we present some hypertension-related data performed among 2010-2019.]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 30, 2020

[Tumor induction by chemotherapy]

[Without chemotherapy, the fi ve-year survival rate of detected cancers would be between 0 and 15%, depending on the tumor, and between 17 and 85% with current therapy. Several warnings call attention to the dangers of chemotherapy-induced side effects, most notably the potential for tumor-inducing ability, which can affect 5-10% of patients who have recovered beyond fi ve years. Some systematically applied drugs used in chemotherapy (alkylating agents, etoposide, arsenic trioxide) are able to cause mutations in healthy cells of the patients, increasing the likelihood that the mutated cells will start a later (secondary) tumor formation. In addition to mutagenic effects, some chemotherapeutic agents exert their effects on normal myeloid and epithelial cells of the body, which, by altering the tissue microenvironment, create the potential for malignant transformation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which can alter gene expression patterns by tumor cell secreted factors and promote the survival and invasiveness of tumor cells by pro-carcinogenic signals, are very important in this process. It is of utmost importance that doctors, pharmacists, technicians and nurses working with cancer-causing materials do not come into direct contact with dangerous substances and wear appropriate protective equipment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

NOVEMBER 30, 2020

[A short chronicle of three decades ]


[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

NOVEMBER 30, 2020

[Lung cancer – a review of thirty years. Thoughts about the past struggles, the present results and promises of the future]


[In the past thirty years there was a huge development in the complex treatment of lung cancer. This development is due mostly to the last decade. Nihilism of lung cancer treatment is over and it is a reality that even patients in advanced stage turn out curable by appropriate therapy and their condition may be changed for a chronic disease while using anti-tumour therapy. Thirty years ago, the realistic life expectancy of six to eight months in advanced stage mounted nowadays significantly, and may surpass even five years in a number of cases. It required adequate diagnostic background, which provided the biomarker based treatment. In early stage surgical resection has a fundamental role, coupled with modern complex neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment, while new surgical techniques also contributed to the improvement of therapeutic results. The same is true for radiation therapy. The same complex strategy is prevailing also in pharmaceutical options, which are dominated by modalities of cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted immunothe­rapies. Multidisciplinary teams play a significant role in strategic decisions of lung cancer treatment. The future ways are indicating repeated innovations of tar­geted therapies and extended indica­tions of immunotherapy in terms of precision medicine. However, we must keep in mind also the primary and secondary prevention with effective smoking cessation programs and low-dose chest CT scree­ning applied as usual soon in the risk groups. ]

Clinical Oncology

DECEMBER 30, 2019

[Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients]

[Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and severe complication of cancer. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the second most common cause of death in cancer patients. Cancer, tumor-related factors as well as patient’s general condition and comorbidities are responsible for the increased risk of VTE. Chemotherapy is one of the most important risk factors for VTE, increasing incidence of VTE by 6.5-fold. In my paper, current guidelines for cancer VTE prevention and treatment are reviewed. Hospitalized patients with active tumor are at higher risk for VTE, and thrombosis prophylaxis is recommended in all cases. Extensive, routine prophylaxis for advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is not recommended, but may be considered in high-risk ambulatory cancer patients (Khorana-score ≥ 3). Risk factors may change during the course of cancer disease, and the score should be continually reviewed and prophylactic treatment changed as necessary. LMWH is the recommended agent for both primary and secondary prophylaxis/treatment. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are knocking on our door, but results from further clinical trials are pending to determine their exact role.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 30, 2020

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 30, 2019

[Prevention of drug-related neuropathy in the clinical practice]


[There was a revolution of oncological treatments in the last fi ve years caused by introduction of immuncheckpoint inhibitors. Platinum and taxane based chemotherapies are the standard of care of the most frequent malignancies such as colon and breast cancer. Signifi cant improvement was achieved concerning side effects of chemotherapy in the few past decades. Preventive treatment of vomiting, neutropenia, aneamia are now based on clinical evidences. Meanwhile, there remained side effects (including chemotherapy induced neuropathy) which are diffi cult to treat. This article provides overwiev of the pharmacological therapies, vitamins and non-pharmacological procedures aimed to prevent chemotherapy induced neuropathy. Unfortunately still there are no drugs that are highly effective of preventing of chemotherapy induced periferial neuropathy validated in randomized clinical trials.]