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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2021

Capability of stroke scales to detect large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke – a pilot study

TÁRKÁNYI Gábor, KARÁDI Nozomi Zsófia, CSÉCSEI Péter, BOSNYÁK Edit, FEHÉR Gergely, MOLNÁR Tihamér, SZAPÁRY László

Rapid changes of stroke management in recent years facilitate the need for accurate and easy-to-use screening methods for early detection of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Our aim was to evaluate the ability of various stroke scales to discriminate an LVO in AIS. We have performed a cross-sectional, observational study based on a registry of consecutive patients with first ever AIS admitted up to 4.5 hours after symptom onset to a comprehensive stroke centre. The diagnostic capability of 14 stroke scales were investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) values of NIHSS, modified NIHSS, shortened NIHSS-EMS, sNIHSS-8, sNIHSS-5 and Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) scales were among the highest (>0.800 respectively). A total of 6 scales had cut-off values providing at least 80% specificity and 50% sensitivity, and 5 scales had cut-off values with at least 70% specificity and 75% sensitivity. Certain stroke scales may be suitable for discriminating an LVO in AIS. The NIHSS and modified NIHSS are primarily suitable for use in hospital settings. However, sNIHSS-EMS, sNIHSS-8, sNIHSS-5, RACE and 3-Item Stroke Scale (3I-SS) are easier to perform and interpret, hence their use may be more advantageous in the prehospital setting. Prospective (prehospital) validation of these scales could be the scope of future studies.

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 28, 2020

[The indication for surgical resection in secondary liver malignancies - New therapeutic approaches]


[During the last decade liver surgery underwent major improvement: mortality rates reduced meanwhile new surgical approaches converted surgeons’ consideration on many advanced cases likely to be resectable. Liver is the most frequent site for tumor metastases and liver metastasis surgery experienced major changes as well. As long as liver resection related mortality rates have decreased indication for operative treatment of liver metastasis with certain primary tumors (stomach, pancreas) gained reconsideration and became reasonable. New surgical methods and approaches (laparoscopy, portal vein embolization) came into everyday application meantime several researches were completed enabling oncological aspect interpretation. Laparoscopy is a proven rational way of approach not only in cases of primary but metastatic liver tumors too: short and long term survival rates and oncological results are comparable with the results of open surgery. Although reports on large number series have not yet been published, it seems that practice of laparoscopy can bring increased number of cases where resection of primary tumor and synchronous liver metastasis can be performed simultaneously. Treatment strategies including surgical procedure overwhelm results of schemes planned with chemotherapy lines only even for patients suffering from advanced metastatic disease with necessary extended liver resection together with major vessel resection or for those who require liver resection following portal occlusion method. Consent opinion in best therapeutic option by oncologist and surgeon is essential to reach optimal liver metastasis patient treatment.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 30, 2020

The applications of transcranial Doppler in ischemic stroke


Background: This overview provides a summary of the applications of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in ischemic stroke. Results: A fast-track neurovascular ultrasound protocol has been developed for detecting occlusion or stenosis. The technique is more reliable in the carotid area than in the posterior circulation. By monitoring the pulsatility index the in­crea­sed intracranial pressure can be diagnosed. TIBI score was developed for grading residual flow. TCD has been shown to accurately predict complete or any recanalization. Regarding recanalization, TCD has a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 88%, a positive predictive value of 96%, a negative predictive value of 78% and an overall accuracy of 91%, respectively. Sonothrombolysis seemed to be a promising application but randomized controlled trials have shown that it does not improve clinical outcome. TCD examination can detect microembolic signals (MES) which are associated with an increased risk of stroke. Micro­em­boli were detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and during carotid endarterectomy. The number of microemboli can be decreased by antithrombotic therapy. Contrast en­chan­ced examination and Valsalva maneuver with continuous TCD monitoring can accurately screen for right-to-left shunt.