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Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 20, 2019

[The role of the microbiome in the etiology and treatment of neoplastic diseases]

SCHWAB Richárd, BACSUR Emese, TORDAI Attila, PETÁK István

[Experimental data on the role of the microbiome in the onset and progression of infl ammatory diseases and cancer have been accumulated for years. An important milestone in this respect was the discovery that APC mutant mice in sterile conditions do not develop colon cancer of the FAP type. The direct role of the Enterobacteriaceae and Fusobacteriaceae bacterial families were also shown in the pathomechanism of the same experimental model. The toxic effect of chemotherapy on the gut fl ora has been well documented, but it may very well be that this putative side effect is part of the effi cacy, primarily in the case of adjuvant chemotherapy. The fi rst reproducible methods of microbiome molecular diagnostics are already available today. In addition to standard large clinical studies, we can increasingly rely on evidence of molecular pathomechanism and „real-world” clinical experience in the clinical interpretation of the microbiome. The overview summarizes the results of the fi eld research and its translation possibilities in terms of routine clinical practice.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 20, 2019

[Rifaximin-α: More than antibiotic ]

TALLER András

[Antibiotic therapy might alter gut microbiome. The consequence of that is dysbiosis with or without immediate overt clinical manifestation. The beneficial effect of rifaximin, a non-absorbable broad spectrum antibiotic, in gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders is known for a long time. According to recent data rifaximin has not only antibiotic but also anti-inflammatory and, within antibiotics, a unique special eubiotic effect as well. It modulates the gut microbiome, restores eubiosis through increasing beneficial species’ count while not disturbing diversity.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

DECEMBER 10, 2018

[Mastitis and breastfeeding]

UNGVÁRY Renáta, MIKÓ-BARÁTH Eszter, KISS Eleonóra

[Various degrees of mastitis affect a significant percentage of breastfeeding mothers. Prevention and effective treatment are important public health issues due to the severe pain, malaise, high fever, and possible complications. Among other causes for early termination of breastfeeding, the most prominent reasons are the pain, prolonged healing, abscess due to mastitis and the frequent recurrence of the disease. Proper management of mastitis and alleviating the symptoms influence the length of breastfeeding and hence leads to a positive outcome for both the mother’s and her child’s long term health. Nevertheless, there are inconsistencies worldwide regarding the diagnosis, cure and prevention of mastitis. The treatments are done mostly on empirical basis. Even though numerous articles have been published on the subject, the unequivocal results are yet to come. This overview summarizes the current knowledge and the dilemmas about mastitis as well as the prevention opportunities and therapies. It also discusses the new results on breastmilk microbiome research, which might change the approach towards mastitis treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JANUARY 20, 2018

[The role of gut microbiota in mental health]

FRECSKA Ede, MÓRÉ Csaba

[During the last decade, the Human Mic­robiom Project resulted in several important discoveries regarding the role of the microbiota communities - with the central role of the gut flora - in maintaining physiological homeostasis. The increasing knowledgebase carries important consequences for mental health. From a psychiatrist’s perspective, the current publication summarizes the most important results which may help to understand the etiopa-thology of neuropsychiatric illnesses, facilitate development of effective therapeutic interventions, and provide cues for disease prevention and a healthier lifestyle. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 25, 2015

[Genetic polymorphisms of human beta-defensins in patients with multiple sclerosis]

SZEKERES Márta, SOMOGYVÁRI Ferenc, BENCSIK Krisztina, SZOLNOKI Zoltán, VÉCSEI László, MÁNDI Yvette

[Aims - Recent studies have started to elucidate the contribution of microbiome to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is also supposed, that neuropathological alterations might be associated with abnormal expression and regulatory function of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including defensins. It is in our interest to investigate the relevance of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DEFB1 gene and the copy number polymorphism of the DEFB4 genes in MS. Methods - DEFB1 polymorphisms: c.-20G > A (rs11362), DEFB1 c.-44C > G (rs1800972), DEFB1 c.-52G>A (rs1799946), and the DEFB4 gene copy number were investigated in 250 MS patients The control patients comprised 232 age- and gender-matched healthy blood donors. The occurrence of the human b-defensin 2 peptide (hBD2) in the plasma of controls and patients was determined by ELISA. Results - The DEFB1 c.-44C>G polymorphism the GG protective genotype was much less frequent among patients than among the controls. A higher frequency of a lower (<4) copy number of the DEFB4 gene was observed in the patients with MS as compared with the controls (43% vs. 28%, respectively). The median levels of the circulating hBD2 in the patients were 150.6±12.71 pg/ml vs. 262.1±23.82 pg/ml in the control group (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that b-defensins play role in the development of MS.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 14, 2014

[Our body as an ecosystem, or the „brave new world” of metagenomics]

FALUS ANDRÁS, BARCS István, DUDA Ernő

[Micro-organisms (e.g. bacteria) are generally associated with diseases. We rarely consider that these organisms are living creatures, which pursue to survive and reproduce themselves. Obviously, they are dependent on and also have an active impact on their living environment. This interaction might be beneficial but also harmful - a situation they try to avoid. This complex network represents an extremely complicated multi-directional control, the disruption of which may result in serious diseases.]