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Lege Artis Medicinae

APRIL 18, 2020

[Interrelations between antidepressants and diabetes]

HARGITTAY Csenge, GONDA Xénia, MÁRKUS Bernadett, VÖRÖS Krisztián, TABÁK Gy. Ádám, KALABAY László, RIHMER Zoltán, TORZSA Péter

[Diabetes and depression are frequent comorbidities. They are a heavy burden by themselves, however, as comorbidities increase additionally the number of diabetes-related complications, morbidity, and mortality. In the background of interrelations, there are both well-known and hypothetical mechanisms. The aim of the present review is to outline these interrelations between antidepressants and diabetes and to discuss the effect of medications on carbohydrate metabolism respectively. Anti­depressant treatment on the one hand may improve mood, cognitive function and medication adherence leading to an improved glucose metabolism, on the other hand through their metabolic side effects, they may worsen carbohydrate metabolism. Concerning metabolic side effects, selec­tive serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the sa­fest, while tricyclic antidepressants and mo­noamine oxidase inhibitors should be administered under close monitoring. Se­rotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors may deteriorate gly­cae­mic control via increased noradre­nergic activation. Novel antidepressants, how­ever, have a neutral or positive impact on gly­caemic measures. Screening for and temporally adjusted treatment of depres­sion may decrease the risk of comorbidities ge­nerated complications. While caring for diabetic patients with depression, one should consider metabolic side effects of antidepressants and close monitoring of carbohydrate metabolism.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2016

Unanswered questions in the transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment of patients with depression

MORVAI Szabolcs, NAGY Attila, KOVÁCS Attila, MÓRÉ Csaba, BERECZ Roland, FRECSKA Ede

According to the WHO fact sheet depression is a common mental disorder affecting 350 million people of all ages worldwide. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique which allows the investigator to stimulate and study cortical functions in healthy subjects and patients suffering from various mental and neurological disorders. In the early 1990s, studies revealed that it is possible to evoke long term mood changes in healthy volunteers by rapid rate repetitive, TMS (rTMS) over the frontal cortex. Subsequent studies involving depressed patients found frontal cortical rTMS administered daily to be clinically effective. In the past two decades, numerous trials examined the therapeutic potential of rTMS application in the treatment of mood disorders with constantly evolving treatment protocols. The aim of this paper is to review the literature of the past two decades, focusing on trials addressing the efficacy and safety of rTMS in depressed patients. Our primary goal is to evaluate the results in order to direct future studies which may help investigators in the development of treatment protocols suitable in hospital settings. The time is not far when TMS devices will be used routinely by practitioners primarily for therapeutic purpose rather than clinical research. To our knowledge, a widely accepted “gold standard" that would offer the highest efficacy, with the best tolerability has not been established yet. In order to approach this goal, the most important factors to be addressed by further studies are: localization, frequency, intensity, concurrent medication, maintenance treatments, number of pulses, trains, unilateral, or bilateral mode of application.

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2016

[The therapeutic use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression]

NÉMETH Viola Luca, CSIFCSÁK Gábor, KINCSES Zsigmond Tamás, JANKA Zoltán, MUST Anita

[The antidepressive effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been investigated for almost 20 years now. Several studies have been published aiming to identify the exact and reliable parameters leading to the desired therapeutic effect. However, the related literature shows great variability. The current overview aims to provide a comprehensive overview of factors associated with the therapeutic effect of rTMS in major depression. High frequency stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 3-6 weeks leads to mood improvement comparable to the effect of antidepressive medications in 35-40% of patients. Pharmacotherapy resistant patients treated with rTMS reach remission for 3 months on average. Low frequency stimulation of the right DLPFC appears to be similarly effective, though much less investigated so far. In addition to the exact delineation of the stimulation area, treatment outcome is also related to stimulation intensity as well as the number of sessions and impulses. Considering the safety and tolerability aspects of rTMS, it might be a significant therapeutic support for therapy resistant patients. Above this, patients diagnosed with major depression might benefit from the additional positive influence of rTMS improving the effect of antidepressive medication. Based on converging research evidence, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agency approved the use of rTMS as a treatment option for therapy resistant major depression in 2008. So far, in Hungary rTMS is primarily considered as a promising tool in research settings only. Hopefully, patients suffering from major depression will increasingly benefit from the positive therapeutic effect of this intervention.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 10, 2020

[Recommendations of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for dyslipidaemia. Focused on: primary prevention]


[In 2019 the European Atherosclerosis So­ciety (EAS) and European Society of Car­dio­logy (ESC) renewed their dyslipidae­mia guidelines. The new version is more progressive than the previous ones. Thus, in the low-risk, not severely hy­per­choles­te­ro­lae­mic population cholesterol-lowering medication is also suggested. Except this low-risk group, atherogenic target values, e.g. for LDL-cholesterol, were reduced by an entire category, in some cases to the lowest one. If these goals cannot be achieved with statin-monotherapy, combined treatment is recommended generally by the cholesterol inhibitor ezetimib, and in some very high-risk cases also by innovative cholesterol lowering so-called PCSK9 inhibitor. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 10, 2020

[Diagnosis and treatment of the overactive bladder]


[The Overactive Bladder Syndrome (OAB) is a symptomatic diagnosis featured mainly by urgency of urine discharging. This condition can be triggered by a number of etiological factors, most of which are idiopathic in origin. Regardless of gender and age, the prevalence is ca. 16% and has a serious impact on the quality of life of the patients. In­ves­tigations are mostly performed through usual baseline examinations; second-line invasive examinations are rarely required. The broad spectrum of treatment options ran­ges from lifestyle changes and elimina­tion of triggering factors, through be­ha­vio­ural therapy and medication to the mi­ni­mally invasive (botulinum toxin, neuro­mo­dulation, percutaneous stimulation of the tibial nerve) - and rarely - invasive thera­pies. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

NOVEMBER 15, 2019

[Hypertension in the elderly ]

BARNA István

[Elevated isolated systolic pressure is the most common and greatest cardiovascular risk factor with age. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age and ex­ceeds 60% over 70 years. Proper treatment of hypertension in the elderly, even in very old age (> 80 years), increases life expectancy and reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. For patients over 65 years of age, the target blood pressure range is between 130-139 / 70-80 mmHg if the patient tolerates the treatment. In elderly patients with poorer conditions, systolic blood pressure may be <150 mmHg. White-coat hypertension is common, nondipper ratio is increased, autonomic nervous system dysregulation is more common, and orthostatic decrease of blood pressure. The renal function is decreased or already impaired, often resulting in poorer therapeutic cooperation due to impaired cognitive function. The blood pressure lowering effect of targeted lifestyle changes may be the same as medication monotherapy, with the main disadvantage of decreasing adherence over time, for which a proper physician-patient relationship is essential. First-line agents for the treatment of elderly hypertension include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), long-acting calcium channel blockers, and thiazide, thiazide-like diuretics. Beta-blockers should be used in the treatment of elderly hypertension if they have other indications (coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias). More than 70% of hypertensive patients should use combination therapy to achieve target blood pressure. Take advantage of fixed dose combination to improve compliance to optimize treatment. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 20, 2019

[How many cardiovascular events can be avoided by a lipid lowering therapy based on preventive guidelines?]

MÁRK László

[The lipid lowering therapy became one of the most important elements in the cardiovascular prevention, yet it is not appropriately evaluated neither by the doctors, nor by the patients. The lipid goal attainment should to be improved according to Hungarian and international data. Using a recommendation guided lipid lowering therapy the most benefit can be expected in the patients at very high risk who alrea­dy had a cardiovascular event, where the LDL-cholesterol goal is 1.8 mmol/L. Calculating upon the data of 170000 patients of Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration a decrease of LDL-cholesterol level from 2.5 mmol/L to 1.8 in 100 patients in 10 years would avoid 3 myocardial infarctions, strokes or death, lowering that from 3.5 mmol/L to the goal would prevent these 3 events within 5 years. Using the traditional LDL-cholesterol lowering medication, high dose statin and ezetimibe, if the attitude of doctors and the compliance of patients would be ideal, the 1.8 mmol/L goal attainment rate would be over 80%. Unfortunately, up to now the reimbursed administration of ezetimibe in Hungary is still bound to a specialist’s recommendation, adding it to any dose of any statin an additional 20% LDL-cholesterol can be expected. The reimbursed administration of PCSK9-inhibitors is possible only based on a special request to National Health Insurance Fund. To achieve a better national cardiovascular morbidity and mortality the attitude of the doctors and the adherence of the patients to the lipid lowering therapy should be improved (it’s the goal of the present paper as well).]

Hypertension and nephrology

MAY 10, 2019

[One-year persistence of fixed-dose combinations of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium channel blocker in hypertensive patients]


[Introduction: The most recent European guidelines for the treatment of hypertension suggest the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists (RAAS inhibitors) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or diuretics fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) as the first therapeutic option. In antihypertensive therapy, the patient’s adherence is one of the most important factors in reducing unwanted cardiovascular events. Aim: Our aim was to assess the one-year persistence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and CCB FDCs in hypertensive patients. Method: Authors have analysed the prescription database of the National Health Insurance Fund in Hungary on pharmacy claims between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2013. Those patients were identified who filled prescriptions for FDCs of ACEI and CCBs prescribed for the first time for hypertensive patients and who had not re ceived similar drugs during the year before. Apparatus of survival analysis was used, where ‘survival’ was the time to abandon the medication. Results: 124,388 patients met the inclusion criteria. One-year persistence rate and hazard ratio (HR) of discontinua tion in patients with ramipril/amlodipine FDC was 54% (HR = 1.00, reference), perindopril/amlodipine 47% (HR = 1.30, p<0.0001), lisinopril/amlodipine 36% (HR = 1.79, p<0.0001), ramipril/felodipine 26% (HR = 2.28, p<0.0001) and trandolapril/verapamil 12% (HR = 4.13, p<0.0001). The average survival time of drug limited to 360 days was 270.2 days for ramipril/amlodipine FDC, 242.7 days for perindopril/amlodipine FDC, 211.2 days for lisinopril/amlodipine FDC, 186.3 days for ramipril/felodipine FDC and 125.7 days for trandolapril/verapamil FDC. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the one-year persistence of ACEI/CCB FDCs was significantly different in hypertensive patients. Ramipril/amlodipine FDC was more advantageous for patient adherence.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 20, 2019

[The modern therapy of lipid disorders in the daily practice ]


[Elevated LDL-C and/or triglycerides and decreased HDL-C levels contribute to development of vascular lesions. In the absence of detectable vascular disease the lipid values of providing vascular protection preferably with a healthy diet, regular physical activity and by trying to get out of harmful passions. If the healthy lifestyle is not effective enough, lipid-lowering medication may also be necessary in primary prevention. In the cases of inherited lipid disorders and in patients with high or very high cardiovascular risk it is necessary to take lipid lowering medications in effective dose. The Hun­ga­rian and the international guidelines have been formulated the targets of lipid values for vascular protection. The paper is trying to help for everyday medical practice, how to treat the dyslipidemic patients with the application of widely available lipid parameters and lipid lowering medications effectively. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2018

[Differential diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia]

NÉMETH Zsófia, DEÁK György

[Hyponatraemia (serum sodium concentration < 136 mmol/l) is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality that inceases the risk of both in-hospital, and outpatient mortality. Antidiuretic hormone action or low glomerular fitration rate or low excretable osmoles or their combination are involved in its pathogenesis. Differential diagnosis is based on medical and medication histories, serum- and urine osmolality and urine sodium concentration. Measurement of fractional excretions of urea and uric acid help identifying low effective circulting volume, renal hypoperfusion. Symptomatic hyponatraemia or an acute decrease of serum sodium concentration exceeding 10 mmol/l should be treated with 3% NaCl to avoid impending threat to life. The principles of the treatment of chronic hyponatraemia are restriction of water intake and elimination of etiologic factor(s) (eg. medications - most often thiazides). In case of contracted axtracellular volume, isotonic saline should be given. In case of euvolaemia, restriciton of water intake is fundamental. In case of expanded extracellular volume, (heart failure, liver cirrhosis, nephrosis), water and NaCl intake should be restricted along with aldosteron antagonist and loop diuretic therapy. In chronic hyponatraemia, the rise of serum sodium concentration should not exceed 10 mmol/l during the first 24 hours and 8 mmol/l/day thereafter. ]