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Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 30, 2019

[Role of calcium metabolism in malignant diseases]


[Calcium plays a key role in a wide range of biologic functions. It is involved in skeletal mineralization, muscle functions, nerve transmission, and hormonal secretion and modulate various cellular functions too. Lines of research, on possible association of calcium metabolism regulation with tumorigenesis have been extensively studied in the recent decades. Implying disruptions and/or alterations of known regulatory and molecular pathways can lead to severe, sometimes life-threatening complications. The shift in physiological regulation and pathological factors also affect bone metastases and hypercalcaemia in cancer patients. For this reason, it is important to know about the changes in calcium metabolism and its treatment options in cancerous diseases.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2020

[Recurrent inhibition during Jendrassik maneuver]


[Objective – Conflicting theoretical models exist regarding the mechanism related to the ability of the Jendrassik maneuver to reinforce reflex parameters. Our objective was to investigate if vigorous handgrip would induce changes in recurrent inhibition of soleus motoneurons. Method – Soleus H reflex was evoked by stimulating the tibial nerve at rest and during bilateral vigorous handgrip, alternating single (H1) and paired stimulation (H2). At paired stimulation we used interstimulus intervals of 10, 15, 20 and 25 ms and supramaximal test stimulus. H1- and H2-wave amplitudes were expressed as percentage of maximal M-wave amplitude. Conditioned H2 wave maximal (H2max) and minimal (H2) amplitudes evoked at rest and expressed as a percentage of the unconditioned H1max amplitude were compared with the corresponding values obtained during handgrip by means of paired Student test and Bonferroni correction. Subjects – At the study participated 28 healthy volunteers. Results – The H1max/Mmax × 100 values obtained during handgrip (37.5±10.1) were significantly higher than those obtained at rest (27.1±7.4). The H2max/H1max × 100-va­lues obtained at paired stimulation were significantly higher during handgrip than at rest, while no significant diffe­rence was found between the H2/H1max × 100-values obtained during handgrip and at rest respectively. Discussion – The H2max/H1max is determined by both the excitability of the motoneurons and the recurrent inhibition elicited by the conditioning stimulus, while H2/H1max indicates only the level of recurrent inhibition. According to our results the Renshaw cells retain their inhibitory effect on the soleus alpha motoneurons during remote muscle contraction. Conclusion – Soleus H reflex enhancement during Jendrassik maneuver is not due to decrease of recurrent inhibition. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2020

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2020

Autonomic nervous system may be affected after carpal tunnel syndrome surgery: A possible mechanism for persistence of symptoms after surgery

ONDER Burcu, KELES Yavuz Betul

After carpal tunnel surgery, some patients report complaints such as edema, pain, and numbness. Purpose – The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system function in patients with a history of carpal tunnel surgery using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Thirty three patients (55 ±10 years old) with a history of unilateral operation for carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. The SSR test was performed for both hands. Both upper extremities median and ulnar nerve conduction results were recorded. A reduced amplitude (p=0.006) and delayed latency (p<0.0001) were detected in the SSR test on the operated side compared to contralateral side. There was no correlation between SSR and carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Although complex regional pain syndrome does not develop in patients after carpal tunnel surgery, some of the complaints may be caused by effects on the autonomic nervous system.

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[Sleep disordered breathing and epilepsy: relationships and therapeutic considerations]

FALUDI Béla, BÓNÉ Beáta, KOMOLY Sámuel, JANSZKY József

[The importance of the sleep related breathing disorders (obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, central sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes breathing) in the pathophysiology crebro- and cardiovascular disorders is well known. The relationship of sleep related breathing abnormalities and epilepsy is also important but underestimated in the daily practice. The relation is bidirectional. The breathing abnormalities in sleep may play important role in generating epileptic seizure, but the adverse effect of seizure and antiepileptic therapy (generation of apneas and hypopneas) may worsen the seizure control. The effect of new therapies (vagal nerve and deep brain stimulation) on the sleep architecture and sleep disordered breathing must be examined and discussed. Here we present a brief case of epileptic patient with deep brain stimulation therapy on sleep as well. The examination of the sleep related breathing abnormalities in epilepsy patient may help improve the effectiveness of antiepileptic therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[Health insurance aspects of physiotherapeutic care of neurology disorders in outpatient care]

MOLICS Bálint, BONCZ Imre, LEIDECKER Eleonóra, HORVÁTH Cs. Zoltán, SEBESTYÉN Andor, KRÁNIZC János, KOMOLY Sámuel, DÓCZI Tamás, OLÁH András

[Background and purpose – The aim of our study is to analyse the ambulatory rehabilitation care of patients with neurological disorders in the field of physiotherapy. Methods – Data derive from the database of the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund Administration (year 2009). The analyses covered patients with diagnosis „G00–G99 Diseases of the nervous system” according to the International Classification of Diseases and underwent physiotherapy treatment. Results – In 2009 altogether 190986 patients with neurological disorders received physiotherapy treatment in outpatient care, representing 1331675 cases and got 388.215 million Hungarian Forint health insurance reimbursement. The number of patients with nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders was 39 patients/10 000 population for males and 66 patients/10000 population for females. The number of patients with cerebral palsy and other paralytic syndromes was 49 patients/10000 population for males and 35 patients/10000 population for females. The number of patients with episodic and paroxysmal disorders was 33 patients/10000 population for males and 52 patients/10000 population for females. Conclusion – In the outpatient physiotherapy care the utilization indicators of females were higher in nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders and episodic and paroxysmal disorders, while in cerebral palsy and other paralytic syndromes the utilization of male was higher. There are important age and gender inequalities in the utilization of physiotherapy care of patients with neurological disorders.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[A rare complication of a rare disease; stroke due to relapsing polychondritis]


[Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of cartilaginous structures. Its diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features such as laboratory parameters, biopsy. Neurological complications occur in 3% of the cases and are classified as an important cause of death. The cranial nerve disorders are most common but hemiplegia, ataxia, myelitis, polyneuritis, seizures, confusion, hallucination and headache can also happen. The aetiology of central nervous system involvement is still unknown. Moreover stroke has rarely reported in these patients. The diagnosis of stroke is challenging because of its rarity among these patients. Perhaps vasculitis is the common underlying mechanism. Also meningitis and encephalitis can occur during the course of RP. A 44 year-old woman was admitted with uncontemplated left hemiparesis, redness, swelling, and tenderness of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the right hand and the cartilaginous portion. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. Vasculitis biomarkers were normal in our patient. Carotid and vertebral artery doppler ultrasonography, cranial and cervical MR Angiography were normal. Echocardiography showed a mild mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation. Our patient had the history of auricular polychondritis but she had not been diagnosed. Hemiparesis was her first neurological manifestation that led her to doctors for diagnosis. Our patient fulfilled the criteria of RP so no biopsy was needed. She was treated with oral prednisolone (80 mg/day) and aspirin (300 mg/day) and now she is on 10 mg prednisolone and 150 mg azathioprine. Two months later her physical and neurological symptoms returned to normal.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

Cyanocobalamin and cholecalciferol synergistically improve functional and histopathological nerve healing in experimental rat model

ALBAY Cem, ADANIR Oktay, AKKALP Kahraman Asli, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, GULAEC Akif Mehmet, BEYTEMUR Ozan

Introduction - Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a frequent problem among young adults. Hopefully, regeneration can occur in PNI unlike central nervous system. If nerve cut is complete, gold standard treatment is surgery, but incomplete cuts have been tried to be treated by medicines. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare clinical and histopathological outcomes of independent treatment of each of Vitamin B12 (B12) and Vitamin D3 (D3) and their combination on sciatic nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods - Experimental animal study was performed after the approval of BEH Ethics Committee No. 2015/10. 32 rats were grouped into four (n=8) according to treatment procedures, such as Group 1 (controls with no treatment), Group 2 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12), Group 3 (oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3), Group 4 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12+ oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3). Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and histopathological analysis were performed. Results - SFIs of Group 2, 3, 4 were statistically significantly higher than controls. Group 2 and 3 were statistically not different, however Group 4 was statistically significantly higher than others according to SFI. Axonal degeneration (AD) in all treatment groups were statistically significantly lower than in Group 1. AD in Group 4 was significantly lower than in Group 2 and 3; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and 3. There was no significant difference between Group 1,2 and 3 in Axonolysis (A). But A of Group 4 was significantly very much lower than all others. Oedema- inflammation (OE-I) in all treatment groups were significantly lower than in Group 1; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and group 4. OE-I in Group 2 and 4 were significantly lower than in Group 3. There were no significant differences between Group 1, 2 and 3 in damage level scores; score of Group 4 was significantly lower than of Group 1. Conclusions - B12 and D3 were found effective with no statistically significant difference. But combined use of B12 and D3 improve nerve healing synergistically. We recommend combined use of B12 and D3 after PNI as soon as possible.

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

CANOMAD syndrome with respiratory failure

SALAMON András, DÉZSI Lívia, RADICS Bence, VARGA Tímea Edina, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor, TÖMÖSVÁRI Adrienn, VÉCSEI László, KLIVÉNYI Péter, RAJDA Cecília

CANOMAD (chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, M-protein agglutination, disialosyl antibodies) syndrome is a rare polyneuropathy. IgM paraproteins react with ganglioside-containing disialylated epitopes resulting in dorsal root ganglionopathy and B-lymphocyte infiltration of cranial and peripheral nerves. Clinical features include ataxia, slight muscle weakness, areflexia, sensory- and cranial nerve symptoms. Case studies have reported the efficacy of rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatments. We present the case of a 57-year-old man, who had difficulty walking, with numbness and clumsiness in all limbs. He had areflexia, vibratory sensation loss and ataxia. Laboratory tests showed IgM monoclonal components and disialosyl antibodies in the serum. Nerve conduction studies indicated severe sensorimotor demyelinating polyneuroradiculopathy. Despite IVIg and rituximab treatments, the patient’s disease course gradually worsened and he died of respiratory failure. Neuropathological examination revealed dorsal column- and dorsal root atrophy with mixed mononuclear cell infiltration. This article aims to draw attention to this syndrome, and the use of early potent immunosuppressive treatment to improve patients’ quality of life.

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 10, 2020

[Diagnosis and treatment of the overactive bladder]


[The Overactive Bladder Syndrome (OAB) is a symptomatic diagnosis featured mainly by urgency of urine discharging. This condition can be triggered by a number of etiological factors, most of which are idiopathic in origin. Regardless of gender and age, the prevalence is ca. 16% and has a serious impact on the quality of life of the patients. In­ves­tigations are mostly performed through usual baseline examinations; second-line invasive examinations are rarely required. The broad spectrum of treatment options ran­ges from lifestyle changes and elimina­tion of triggering factors, through be­ha­vio­ural therapy and medication to the mi­ni­mally invasive (botulinum toxin, neuro­mo­dulation, percutaneous stimulation of the tibial nerve) - and rarely - invasive thera­pies. ]