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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2018

A case with angiographic demonstration of isolated anterior spinal artery occlusion

DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, KARA Batuhan, SELCUK Hatem Hakan, DIRICAN Ceyhan Ayten, KOKSAL Ayhan

Anterior spinal artery syndrome (ASAS) is a rare syndrome which occurs due to thrombosis of anterior spinal artery (ASA) which supplies anterior two thirds of the spinal cord. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to emergency clinic with sudden onset neck pain, sensory loss and weakness in proximal upper extremities which occurred at rest. Thrombophilia assessment tests were negative. Echocardiography was normal. Serum viral markers were negative. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, cell count and biochemistry was normal, oligoclonal band was negative, viral markers for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1 and type-2, Brucella, Borrellia, Treponema pallidum, Tuberculosis were negative. Diffusion restriction which reveals acute ischemia was detected in Diffusion weighted MRI. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed. Medical treatment was 300mg/day acetilsalycilic acid. Patient was discharged from neurology clinics to receive rehabilitation against spasticity.

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2017

[Non-contrast brain ct based systemic thrombolysis of two wake up ischemic stroke patients in rural settings]

POZSEGOVITS Krisztián, RENCZ László, CSÚSZ Lajos, SZABÓ Géza

[Background and presentation - Conventionally the acute ischemic stroke patients who wake up with symptomes (WUS - wake up stroke) cannot benefit from systemic thrombolysis due to the uncertainty of the exact onset time of the cerebrovascular event. Perfusion brain imaging could be used as patient selection tool but the method is not available in many settings. Simple non-contrast CT scan is easily accessible and reliable as it shows the different stages of the evolving ischemia with high accuracy. Early brain CT scan results of WUS patients have the same characteristics as the ones who are surely within therapeutic window. The intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) of WUS patients seems to be similarly successful as the ones with known onset time, the treatment does not come with excess complications, higher rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was not found in previous reports. Purpose - In this report we present two systemic thrombolysis cases of acute ischemic stroke patients who woke up with stroke symptoms. Methods - In 2014 and 2015 we performed systemic thrombolysis for one wake up stroke patients, respectively. Both patients had large vessel occlusion. Indication was based on favourable non-contrast brain CT scan results. Results - Treatment of these two patients with rTPA proved to be safe, no hemorrhage occurred after treatment. Conclusion - We presented two acute ischemic stroke patients with symptomes at early wake up who were treated intravenously with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator based on non-contrast CT alone without complications and some moderate improvement at 90 days in the settings of a rural town hospital in a middle income country.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 20, 2016

[Basics of the medical use of ayahuasca: physiology of dimethyltryptamine]


[Ayahuasca is a brew made of two admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and b-carbolines (harmine and tetrahydroharmine). The indigenous groups of the Amazonas basin have been using it for centuries as an ethnomedical substance in healing and spiritual-religious rituals. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and public interest worldwide about its healing effects. Present paper addresses the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use and outlines the cellular mechanisms behind - in focus of the s-1 receptor mediated action of DMT. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is complicated by methodical problems, legal issues, and sociocultural preconceptions.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2015

[Causes and pathological appearances of ischemic heart diseases]


[The myocardial ischemia is caused by insufficient offer of oxygen, it can be caused by damage of coronary arteries which is called coronary heart disease, and might be non coronary in origin, this is the relative coronary insufficiency. The reason of coronary heart diesease is the stenosis or occlusion of the lumen of subepicardial main coronary branches as well as intramyocardial small vessels. The type of alterations either of the main or the small vessels are mentioned. The myocardial bridge play an important part in genesis of intimal plaques. The discrepancy occuring between the actual oxygen demand and oxygen offer causes the relative coronary insufficiency, such as myocardial hypertrophy, anemia, shock, fever etc. The myocardial damages, those of caused ischemia can be devided pathologically irreversibile lesions (infarction, coagulative and colliquation myocytolysis) and ischemic heart disease (ischemic cardiomypathy) and clinically angina pectoris and sudden death. The irreversible lesions are detailed in morphological point of view, and differenece between the regional and subendocardial infarction is accentuated.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2013

[Possibilities of gene therapy with recombinant adenovirus in the cortex and hippocampus]

KOSKA Péter, VALIKOVICS Attila, KISS-TÓTH Éva, SZALAI Adrienn, NAGY Zoltán, FODOR Bertalan

[Background and purpose - Neurodegenerative diseases eg. ischemic stroke causes lifelong disabilities in cognitive functions and movement, furthermore high frequency of death. Antiapoptotic, or growth factor gene targeting to cortical structures could be a useful tool for neuroprotection in ischemic brain diseases. In present study we examined the feasibility of the gene therapy of the cortex and hippocampus via transfecting brain with recombinant adenovirus containing LacZ reporter gene in normal and postischemic condition. Since translation of proteins can be inhibited following ischemia by the phosphorylation of ribosomal subunit eIF2α, phosphor-eIF2α immunohystochemistry were performed. Methods - Our adenovirus vector was introduced via the cisterna magna into control and postischemic gerbil brain. After 48 hours of transfection the brains were examined for X-gal staining. LacZ expressing cells showed blue colour. Five min. transient global ischemia was induced by clipping the vertebral and carotid arteries of gerbil. Phosphor-eIF2α immunohystochemistry were performed following 48 hours of ischemia. Results - Administration of adenoviral vector resulted in transfection of hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3 cell layers while gyrus dentatus remained untransfected. Cortical pyramidal cell layers were also transfected. In postischemic brain the lack of LacZ gene expression were detected in the CA1 and CA2 layer of hippocampus. Ischemia caused eIF2α phosphorylation in hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3 and most neuronal layers in the cortex. Conclusion - Introducing adenovirus vector via the cisterna magna may results in effective gene therapy of cortex and hippocampus. To develop effective gene therapy in postischemic hippocampal CA1 and CA2 cell layers needs further investigation. eIF2α phosphorylation probably doesn’t interfere with transgene expression.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 20, 2011

[Two cases of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome due to unilateral stenosis of the renal artery]

LAKATOS Orsolya, GYÖRKE Zsuzsanna, VAJDA Péter, JUHÁSZ Zsolt, DEGRELL Péter, SULYOK Endre, MOLNÁR Dénes

[Eighty percent of secondary hypertension in childhood is of a renal cause, and ten percent of these cases are due to renovascular disease. Rarely, unilateral stenosis of the renal artery can lead to hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome as a consequence of critical renal ischemia, which is characterized by serious hypertension, electrolyte disturbances (hyponatremia, hypokalemia), polyuria and increased activity of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The authors review the cases of a 27-month-old and a 3-year-old boy, in whom HHS developed due to a severe stricture of the renal artery. With the removal of the nonfunctioning kidney, polyuria and electrolyte disturbances resolved, the level of renin normalised, and anti-hypertensive therapy could be gradually ceased. The authors emphasize that the measurement of blood pressure in children is crucial, especially in cases of polyuria, polydipsia, proteinuria and failure to thrive. Early recognition is very important, and a kidney with a function under ten percent must be removed before hypertension can be stabilized. In case of an electrolyte disturbance associated with hypertension, the possibility of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome must be considered in childhood as well.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2011

[The use of carvedilol following invasive interventions]


[The primary goals of the treatment of AMI are to rapidly open - either mechanically or by thrombolysis - the blocked blood vessel and to keep it open. Restarting of the blood flow in blocked vessels results in an increased load in volume, pressure and metabolism in the blood vessel's supply area, which triggers the activation of a pathophysiological cascade. Pathophysiological processes accompanying the opening of the blood vessel include activation of catecholamines, RAS and neutrophils and subsequent free radical production, and increases in the levels of proinflammatory citokines and intracellular CA levels, that is, the so called oxygen paradox. The above mentioned processes can be blocked by beta receptor blockers (BRB) as demonstrated by class I, type A evidence. A number of clinical studies have shown their clinical efficiency following PCI. The PAMI, StentPAMI, AirPAMI and CADILLAC studies have proved that BRBs decrease mortality and morbidity after the intervention. The third-generation BRB carvedilol, which acts as a beta and alpha blocker in patients with STEMI successfully treated with PCI, and is also a Ca-channel blocker and a free radical trap, is the firstchoice agent for both theoretical and clinical reasons. Animal studies have shown that carvedilol results in greater reductions in the levels of markers indicating postinfarction reperfusion and ventricular remodeling (MCP1, MMP2, TIMP2) compared with metoprolol. Animal studies have also showed that carvedilol is the most efficient BRB for preventing the damaging of gap junction structure in reperfusion, and for inhibiting the ventricular arrhythmias induced by reperfusion, through restoring connexin 43. The beneficial effect of this drug on the cardiovascular events and mortality following myocardial infarction have been demonstrated in a number of human studies with hard endpoints. The unique efficiency of carvedilol in vascular prevention following PCI has been demonstrated by the short-term and longterm efficiency of carvedilol-filled stents, compared with BMSE-filled stents. Information on the postintervention, long-term (3-year) efficiency of carvedilol in a large (N :7500) patient group is expected to be published in 2015 in the CAPITAL-RCT study coordinated by the University of Kyoto. In summary, the results of experimental and clinical studies on carvedilol have shown that within the BRB group, carvedilol is highly recommended for the prevention of oxygen paradox following successful PCI and preserving the myocardium.]

Hypertension and nephrology

JUNE 10, 2011

[Postconditioning in major vascular operations for the prevention of postoperative renal complications]


[Objectives: During vascular surgeries on the abdominal aorta, lower extremities suffer ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury which can lead to rhabdomyolysis. A severe complication is the myonephropathic metabolic syndrome with acute renal failure. The aim of the study was to investigate whether postconditioning (rapid repetitive cycles of ischaemia and reperfusion on the onset of the organ reperfusion, a novel technique to reduce ischaemia-reperfusion injuries) could prevent renal failure in major vascular surgery. Subjects and methods: Male Wistar-rats underwent 180 minutes of bilateral lower limb ischaemia and four hours of reperfusion. Postconditioning consisted of 6 cycles of 10-second aortic occlusion/10-second declamping. Microcirculation of the kidney was detected with laser Doppler flowmeter. After 4, 24, 72 hours of reperfusion serum, urine, and histological samples were collected. Acid-base state was evaluated immediately after reperfusion. Results: After four hours of reperfusion there were no significant histological alterations in the muscle in contrast to the 24 hour rhabdomyolysis with inflammation. CK, LDH, AST levels increased in the acute phase but improved in the 24th and 72nd postoperative hours. Kidney histology and laboratory tests showed definite signs of acute tubular injury in control animals. In the early stage serum creatinine; seBUN/creatinin; FENa showed significantly (p<0.05) lower kidney injury in the postconditioned group. Postconditioning improved the kidney cortex microcirculation. Conclusion: Postconditioning can reduce the prevalence and consequences of renal failure after experimental major vascular surgery in rats.]

Hungarian Radiology

OCTOBER 20, 2007

[Computed tomography brain perfusion in the management of acute stroke]

BAGI Róbert, SZABÓ Tünde, MONOKI Erzsébet

[INTRODUCTION - The multidetector CT-technology made the application of perfusion CT-examination in the diagnosis of vascular brain damages possible in recently. The purpose of this study was to introduce the method and to assess the importance of computed tomography brain perfusion in emergency patient care and early diagnosis of brain ischemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS - We perform brain perfusion examinations with a 2 slice multidetector computer tomography (General Electric Highspeed NX/i, 2004) in our hospital. We examined the results of native and perfusion CT of 27 patients who underwent CT brain perfusion examination during emergency patient care in our department between 2004 January and 2006 December. We also examined if the patients got systemic thrombolysation and the patients’ condition after therapy. RESULTS - The perfusion software can make quantitative colour maps of parameters (CBF, CBV, MTT) and can visualize mean value and percentil decrease of measuring parameters. There were 18 positive and 8 negative CTbrain perfusion examinations in the examined period. One examination was technically unvaluable. CONCLUSION - By measuring blood flow's decrease the CT-brain perfusion examination can separate the reversible and irreversible damage of brain parenchyma. The examination protocol of brain vascular damages are native CT-scan, postcontrast perfusion CT-examination and CTangiography by the recommendation of international literature. Despite the multidetector CT-s and CT-perfusion technic is available for years, the CT-brain perfusion examination is not a routine process in the emergency patient care in our country.]