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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 20, 2007

[SYNAPTIC CONNECTIONS OF GLUTAMATERGIC NERVE FIBRES IN THE RAT SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS]

KISS József, CSÁKI Ágnes, CSABA Zsolt, HALÁSZ Béla

[Background and purpose - The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus functioning as the principal circadian pacemaker in mammals, has a rich glutamatergic innervation. Nothing is known about the terminations of the glutamatergic fibres. The aim of the present investigations was to study the relationship between glutamatergic axon terminals and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), GABA and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the cell group. Methods - Double label immunocytochemistry was used and the brain sections were examined under the electron microscope. Vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 was applied as marker of the glutamatergic elements. Results - Glutamatergic fibers were detected in synaptic contact with GABAergic, VIP- and AVP-positive neurons forming asymmetric type of synapses. Conclusion - The findings are the first data on the synaptic contacts of glutamatergic axon terminals with neurochemically identified neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 20, 2005

[ISOTOPE BASED CARDIAC DIAGNOSTICS - POSSIBILITIES IN NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY]

BALOGH Ildikó

[Methods of nuclear cardiology have been applied for several decades and there is continuous development in this area. The most commonly used modality is the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). During stress MPS, the presence and the severity of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) can be detected. Resting MPS can show a freshly developing acut myocardial infarction (AMI) immediately, but new and old infarcted myocardial areas can not be distinguished by this method. Using SPECT (single photon emission tomography) examination and quantitative analysis can improve the accuracy of MPS. With gated SPECT we can analyse both the perfusion and the function of left ventricle. To examine the function of left and right ventricle the “gold standard” non-invasive method is MUGA (multiple gated acquisition) of blood pool scintigraphy. After only a few hours of the onset of AMI we can detect it with the socalled infarct avid scintigraphy using radiopharmaceuticals which accumulate in affected area. Following an AMI it is essential to differentiate among high and low risk patients for revascularisation treatment, therefore distinguishing the viable (hibernating) and non-viable (necrotic) myocardium with imaging techniques is an important task. Preserved metabolism as the sign of viable myocardium can be detected both by SPECT (most accurately by thallium rest-redistribution scintigraphy) and PET (detecting glucose metabolism by F-18-FDG). Adrenerg receptor scintigraphy can show the sympathetic innervation: in the case of a transplanted heart it can detect the reinnervation and in the case of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias the risks and the severity of the illness.]

Hungarian Radiology

JANUARY 20, 2003

[A paradox of articular protective phenomenon: more serious-damaged rudimentary hand in rheumatoid arthitis]

SZÁNTÓ Dezső, SZŰCS Gabriella, DITRÓI Edit

[INTRODUCTION - The joints have been secured from rheumatoid arthritis by diminution of biomechanical effeciency. This effect was analyzed and named articular protective phenomenon three decades ago. CASE REPORT - A case of bilateral rheumatoid arthritis associated with unilateral developmental abnormality hand and bronchial asthma in a 35 year old female patient is presented. Her left 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpal bones moreover her fingers had not evolved. The patient has been treated by antiasthmatic steroid drugs for five years. Rheumatoid disorders of the affected left hand were more severe, than the abnormality of the normal upper limb. Eight years later the most severe bony lesions (ankylosis and mutilation) appeared on this side, only. CONCLUSION - The patient's hand was not saved by inborn bone defect in rheumatoid arthritis. The absence of articular protective phenomenon can be explained by the undisturbed innervation of limb, the motility of hypotrophic carpus besides to steroid-induced suppression.]

Hungarian Radiology

JUNE 20, 2002

[Ogilvie’s syndrome associated with excretory urography]

SZÁNTÓ Dezső, SZŰCS Gabriella

[INTRODUCTION - The Ogilvie's syndrome is a disturbance of colonic innervation with parasympathic overreaction was assumed to be cause of large bowel segment spasm and poststenotic accumulation of gas. There is no distention in small intestine. CASE REPORT - In case of a 15 years old male during excretory urography six minutes after the administration of contrast material infusion Ogilvie's syndrome had occured. On 6, 12 and 18 min. abdominal plain film were demonstrated the acute spasm and poststenotic large bowel distention by air lumenogram phenomenon in the kidneys ambilateral renal tuberculosis by the whitening-like contrast opacity arising from centre calyx (pyelotubular reflux) in right side and by clubbing of calyces in left side (daisy flower sign). Not involved the small intestine. The colonic spasm and accumulation of gas lasted approximately 6 hours and ceased without medical aid. CONCLUSION - The Ogilvie's syndrome accompanying excretory urography is a toxic effect attributing to transient injury of peripheric neures and neurovisceral synapses.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 20, 2007

[PITUITARY ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE OF PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS ORIGIN]

FODOR Mariann, MAKARA B. Gábor, PALKOVITS Miklós

[Atrial natriuretic peptide-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus constitute the major sources of ANP in the three lobes of the pituitary gland. Complete transection of the pituitary stalk eliminated 93% of ANP from the intermediate lobe, 47 and 77% from the anterior and the posterior lobes, respectively. Meantime, increased levels of immunoreactive ANP were measured in the median eminence, due to the accumulation of the peptide in the transected axons centrally to the transected stalk and in the paraventricular nucleus. It is likely that ANP neurons in the paraventricular nucleus innervate the pituitary, but those in the periventricular (median) preoptic nucleus and the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis may not contribute to the ANP innervation of the pituitary gland.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 20, 2007

[THE SUPRASPINAL INNERVATION OF THE LEFT ADRENAL IS MORE INTENSE THAN THAT OF THE RIGHT ONE]

GERENDAI Ida, WIESEL Ory, BOLDOGKŐI Zsolt, TÓTH E. Ida

[Background and purpose - Previous studies using the viral transneuronal tracing technique demonstrated that central autonomic circuits are involved in the innervation of the adrenal gland. Since increasing number of data indicate laterality in the neuroendocrine system, we aimed to investigate whether the supraspinal innervation of the adrenal gland exhibits asymmetry or not. Methods - The central circuitry involved in the innervation of the left and the right adrenal gland was studied in individual rats by dual transneuronal tracing using isogenic recombinant strains (BDG and BDL) of Bartha strain of pseudorabies virus. Results - Viral infection of brain nuclei (dorsal vagal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, caudal raphe nuclei, A5 cell group, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus) from the left adrenal was more severe than that from the right organ. Dual-infected neurons from the two adrenals were also detected both in the brain stem and in the hypothalamus. Conclusion - The results indicate a predominance in the supraspinal innervation of the left adrenal gland. Data further suggest that each adrenal gland is innervated both by side-specific neurons and by neurons which project to both organs.]