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Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 30, 2020

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

NOVEMBER 04, 2020

[Hypertension and Covid-19 - part II.]


[The authors review those components and mechanisms in the two major regulatory systems of circulation and inflammation-coagulation whose internal balance and interactions are pathologically altered during SARS-CoV-2 infection, thereby enhancing lung and systemic inflammation threatening to enter into severe clinical condition. They examine the question of how – in addition to potentially promoting the coronavirus cellular entry and penetration – the RAS inhibitor therapy affects these changes and whether can be supposed difference between the anti-/pro-inflammatory influence of ACEi and ARB treatment of old hypertensive patients representing a remarkably high proportion of victims in COVID-19 epidemic. The paper is focussing to the pathomechanical background of inflammation beyond the direct immunological response to the infection: to the significance of immunological alterations characterizing old hypertensive patients also in basic condition, and to the key components as angiotensin II, ACE2, angiotensin1-7, bradykinin, ARB and ACEi. In conclusion a consideration on optimal point of action is offered in RASi treated and SARS-CoV-2 infected (old) hypertensive patients.]

Hypertension and nephrology

NOVEMBER 04, 2020

[The role of stress management in the care of hypertension and the treatment of cardiovascular disease]

SOMOGYI Éva, KISS Zoltán, STAUDER Adrienne

[The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the relationship between stress and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, furthermore to introduce an evidence based stress management intervention available in Hungary. The correlation between cardiovascular disease and psychosocial factors (including concomitant mental disorders as well as personality traits or the effect of social environment) has been established in numerous studies aimed at investigating pathogenesis or various clinical endpoints. The 2016 Guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology include the assessment and the management of psychosocial problems with behavioral medicine interventions as a I.A level recommendation. The implementation of these guidelines in everyday clinical practice is crucial to decrease cardiovascular risk. This involves the training of health care professionals, the facilitation of multidisciplinary collaboration and the integration of behavioral intervention into everyday care. The Williams Life Skills (WLS) program is an evidence based behavioral medicine intervention aiming to improve stress management and communication skills which implemented internationally and also available all over Hungary. It involves the learning of simple coping strategies that facilitate the successful management of every day psychosocial stress situations and the self-conscious reduction of bodily and psychological tensions. In cardiovascular disease, this improves quality of life and survival. The WLS program is especially recommended for healthcare workers to decrease the negative health consequences of their high stress load and to prevent burnout. Stress may affect both doctors and patients during their interactions. Bálint groups have a positive impact on the physician-patient collaboration and help to reduce burnout by improving the understanding of the diseases from a more complex approach.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 21, 2020

[Similarities and differences of the most significant international guidelines for the treatment of hypertension]


[Guidelines of diagnosing and treating hypertension play pre-eminent role in maintaining health in our World. Based on reliable estimates we have to take in ac­count more than 1.6 billion individuals suffering from hypertension by 2025. Ad­he­rence to the guidelines is a vital issue for all high blood pressure patients, however, also the economically developed countries have a disappointing share of well-controlled hypertension. Unfortunately, on the 5 continents of the world, the guidelines provide different or very different recommendations for measuring blood pressure, making diagnosis, estimating cardiovascular risk, and setting a target value, although an attempt has been made in the recent years for developing “consensus” in specific issues. This study presents the different opinions and resolutions by analysing the ACC/AHA, ESC/ESH, NICE, Canadian and Australian guidelines. WHO and ISH resolutions were also concerned. We describe the mutual ad­justment in theoretical and practical terms of the guidelines and the consensus that have already been estab­lished.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Hyperkalaemia IV.]

DEÁK György, PATÓ Éva, KÉKES Ede

[The six-part summary presents the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of hyperkalaemia.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension and reducing cardiovascular risk in general practitioners’ clusters]


[Hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are major public health issues. In their treatment non-pharmacological methods have a role in every case either alone or as a complement. Patient adherence is a key factor. The role of primary care is very important in the management and with general practitioners’ cluster model and with the involvement of new primary care professionals (for example: dietetitian, physiotherapist) the opportunities are expanding. In the A GP Cluster and in the Marosmenti GP Cluster the analysis of the patients’ results who participated in an individual health status examination, in dietetic and in physiotherapy services. Assessing the professionals’ attitudes towards GP cluster model. In the A GP Cluster 2409 people, in the Marosmenti GP Cluster 1826 people participated in an individual health status examination. 14.6% and 19.9% of the participants were under the age of 18. 58.9% and 60.7% of the participants over the age of 18 were female. 1083 and 232 patients used physiotherapy services, 147 and 187 people used dietetic services. The age distribution of the individual health status examinations is correspond to the Hungarian age pyramid. In addition to the preventive approach came into view the community based local health care services. The GP cluster model was welcomed by the patients, the physiotherapy was more popular than dietetic among them. All professionals of the GP clusters had a positive opinion of the professional work done in the project. Conclusion: There is a demand both from the patients and the healthcare professionals for the GP cluster concept. The establishing of an appropriate monitoring system and creating long-term, sustainable operating conditions are essential for achieving lasting social health gains. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Post-career development of cardiometabolic changes and hypertension in competitive athletes]


[Regular physical activity is essential in delaying the aging processes (e.g. arterial remodelling – stiffening, metabolism, bodyweight), the beneficial effects of competitive sports – especially strength sports – according to the recent data of the literature are questionable. The beneficial effects of physical activity on the cardiovascular (CV) system are well known, however less is known regarding the delayed impacts of high intensity competitive sports on the CV system, especially after the sport career is over. This review summarizes the effects of active competitive sport and the post-career period on the cardiometabolic system with special attention to the systemic blood pressure and the development of metabolic syndrome. After sport career, the welldeveloped high performance cardiovascular- and metabolic system suddenly is much less used, but still supported by sport-level diet. It is well known that hypertension is a significant pathogenic factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, characterized – among others – by reduced elasticity of large- and medium- sized vessels thereby importantly contributing to the development of systolic hypertension. Inflammation and thrombus formation both play an important role in the development of vascular injury and atherosclerosis. The increased tone of microvessels can impair the blood supply of certain organs, including the coronary circulation. It has been ample shown, that regular non-competitive, aerobic exercise activities are important factors in preventing hypertension. Such pathological changes become more evident after the development of post-career obesity, as well as the development of hypertension due to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system through sodium retention and other metabolic changes (increased glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus). It has been ample shown, that regular non-competitive, dynamic aerobic exercise activities are important factors in preventing hypertension. The frequency, intensity, type, and time (FITT) principle of exercise prescription is the first and common therapeutic approach, which represents the translation of cardiovascular basic science research results into hypertension treatment, thus can provide a personalized physical activity program/therapy according to medical needs not just for the post-career sportspersons, but the wide range of patients.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Treatment and care of hypertensive patients during and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Possibilities and effectiveness of telemedicine]


[The course and outcome of an pandemic caused by coronaviruses are determined by many factors, such as the strength and dose of the infectious virus, the immune system of the affected individual, the underlying diseases, the speed of virus spread, age and environmental factors and methods of control. In old age, there is a significantly higher risk of developing severe cases and fatalities. The rate of loss of life is particularly high in social care and nursing homes. Hypertension as the underlying disease is the most common cause of death, but hypertension alone is not an independence risk factor, but the main reason is the co-morbidities and complications associated with viral infection. In the epidemic situation, the treatment and care of hypertensive patients poses special challenges for health and active primary and specialist care workers and, of course, for hypertonologists. The Hungarian Society of Hypertension expressed its opinions and recommendations to patients living at home and to doctors performing treatment and care during the Covid-19 virus epidemic and summarized the decision-making possibilities derived from the data obtained during the telemedicine consultation. We would like to present the details of the possibilities provided by telemedicine, the practical possibilities and advantages of the different methods of teleconsultation, and the models that can be implemented in a domestic environment. We have taken into account international experience to date, the new e-health strategy for chronic, non-communicable diseases and the WHO concept. Telemedicine, continuous teleconsultation ensures an optimal relationship between the patient and the doctor, increases the patient’s sense of security, improves drug adherence. The doctor receives reliable data about the patient’s condition and can send him instructions as well as information. The development of a harmonious balance between personal contact and telecommunications already shows the future, and the application of these methods must be developed in the epidemic-free period as well. Previous international (TASMINH-4, HOMED-BP etc.) and domestic (CONADPER-HU) studies have proved that telemonitoring of hypertensive patients can be successfully solved, improves patients’ drug adherence, increases the target blood pressure achievement rate and at the same time the patient will be the active part of the treatment. The method is especially useful in rural settlements without a doctor. Telemedicine monitoring of elderly and multimorbid patients is especially useful in social institutions and nursing homes. It is solved the continuous control of vital functions, ensures continuity of contact with the supervising physician and in urgent cases, allows for rapid intervention. Telemedicine is also of great importance due to the lack of human resources, as many things can be solved with such technology, there are no need so many personal encounters. In addition to influencing the course of this pandemic, it also plays an important role in efficiency, headcount, management and “convenience” in general practice and in all formes of medicine. The proposed models can not only be applied in an epidemic situation, but should continue to be part of everyday health work in future.]

Hypertension and nephrology

JUNE 24, 2020

[Not all young, athletic university students have optimal blood pressure. Results of the May 2019 Measurement Month (MMM19)]

PATÓ Anna, NÉMETH Zoltán, JÁRAI Zoltán, KOLLER Ákos

[For about 100 years, it has been known that persistently high blood pressure (hypertension) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease deaths, such as major risk factors for heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, kidney and eye disease. Unfortunately, one of the characteristics of hypertension is that it remains undetected for a long time until damage to one or more organs has already occurred. Therefore, it is very important that systemic blood pressure is monitored from time to time, especially above 45 years of age. The prevalence of hypertension is more than 35% in the Hungarian population. Recent data have pointed out that hypertension may occur at a younger age, although at a lower frequency. Our studies were conducted in the context of the May 2019 Measurement Month (MMM19), an international campaign that draws attention to hypertension and the lack of systematic screening at population level. We hypothesized that hypertension may occur in young, apparently healthy university students. The studies were conducted among students of the University of Physical Education (n = 33; 25 males, 8 females). The mean age was 24.3 years (20–34 years). To measure blood pressure, an automatic blood pressure monitor (Omron MIT5) was used, placed on individuals’ upper arms, as specified in the guidelines, in a relaxed, sitting position. The measurements were repeated three times at one-minute intervals and the average of the three measurements was statistically analyzed. Blood pressure values (mean ± SEM, averaged over 3 measurements) in the student population were systolic 121.9 ± 14.4 mmHg, diastolic 75.1 ± 9.1 mmHg, mean 90.7 ± 10.9 mmHg, and heart rate: 46.8 ± 5.3 mmHg. Although mean blood pressure was within the normal range, higher values were also found in some individuals. Systolic blood pressure fell by 33% due to elevated normal blood pressure, respectively of Grade 1 hypertension. These data confirmed our hypothesis that hypertension may occur at a young age, despite the fact that members of the study population exercise regularly, which is an important preventive factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. These results underscore the importance of regular blood pressure measurement in adolescents, which may reduce the global spread of hypertension and prevent the development of a number of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, heart attack, renal failure and mental decline.]