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Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 10, 2019

[Metals and cancer]

VETLÉNYI Enikő, RÁCZ Gergely

[We often tend to forget about our environment when looking for the origin of a disease. Inhaled air, drinking water and food, substances in contact with the skin all have an effect on the human body. Metals are indispensable parts of our everyday lives, their mining, processing and use cause a continuous exposure to them. Metal exert their effects on the body in various ways. Many of them are essential for maintaining homeostasis, but excessive or harmful metal intake can lead to health damage, including tumour formation through multiple attack points. Metals substitute each other during different transport processes and in the structure of proteins, they cause oxidative stress and bind to DNA, thereby damaging it. Applying them appropriately, the proapoptotic effect of the metal compounds is brought to the fore, thus becoming a therapeutic tool for tumours. Nowadays, platinum(II) compounds are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents and there are many ongoing studies to fi nd metal compounds with an ideal therapeutic and side-effect profi le. The aims of this article were to draw the attention to the dangers of metals in relation to cancer and to highlight their diverse application possibilities in current and future cancer therapy and diagnostics.]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 30, 2020

[Coronavirus pandemic – new challenges in oncotherapy]

MINÁROVITS János

[This review outlines some of the basic observations related to coronaviruses infecting animals and describes – in a nutshell – the characteristics of human coronaviruses causing mild or severe respiratory diseases in infected individuals. A special attention is given to SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic, and to the pathomechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which is also accompanied with multiorgan failure in a subset of infected patients. Recently discovered unique molecular features of SARS-CoV-2 are described as well. These molecular cues may affect human to human virus transmission whereas they are absent, remarkably, from the other lung-targeting highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV) which did not spread all over the world. The possibilities of active immunization to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of selective small molecule inhibitors curbing the replication of the virus are also touched upon. The review closes with a few remarks regarding the Hungarian and international recommendations concerning the treatment of SARSCoV- 2 infected cancer patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2021

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 10, 2018

[The role of early clinical studies in oncology]

KERPEL-FRONIUS Sándor

[Although the basic theory of the early development of different drug groups is identical, due to their various pharmacological characteristics the design of the studies, the starting safe dose and the selection of the pharmacologic and therapeutic end-points show signifi cant differences. The development process of drugs is usually divided into two functionally different parts, the learning and the confi rming phases, respectively. The aim of the fi rst part is the description of the suggested targets, the mechanism of action in humans and the characterization of the drug-linked biomarkers. This section contains the microdose (phase 0), phase I and II studies. The end-point of this part is the proof of the underlying concept which was developed on the basis of the non-clinical studies. According to the internationally accepted terminology, this strategically important point is called the Proof of Concept (POC). Upon POC it has to be decided whether the drug-candidate possesses those qualities which make it worthwhile to perform human phase III studies, treating the statistically required number of patients for proving the good therapeutic effi cacy and safety of the drug. This section of the drug development is called the confi rmatory phase. The use of highly sophisticated technology opened the possibility to apply microdoses in humans for studying the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of new drugs as well as the characteristics of human biomarkers at very low, harmless drug doses. This approach made possible to draw important conclusions on the usefulness of biomarkers for the clinical practice even following the fi rst drug-application. The planning of phases I and II studies, the calculation of the applicable doses, the selection of the pharmacologic and therapeutic end-points, the use of biomarkers, are all based on the concept of translational medicine and are essentially dependent on the results obtained both in animal experiments and human microdose studies.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

DECEMBER 21, 2020

[History of vaccine production in Hungary ]

ÓCSAI Lajos

[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection]

KÉKES Ede

[The modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus have been analyzed in detail recently. It can be stated that the deposition of micro-sized virus particles on different surfaces and in the air is the main reason for the strength and spread of the epidemic all over the world. Spread of virus is present in practically every event of our lives and daily activities. The usual movements of human-human contact, the specific habits of our own lives (face smoothing, eye rubbing etc.) increase the spread. The greatest threat is posed by infected but asymptomatic individuals as carriers of the virus, and the main concern is the speed of transmission dynamics. We have strong evidence that 1.5-2 meter distance, mask wearing, and eye protection are crucial in reducing the rate of virus transmission. It can be assumed that, like normal influenza virus infections, the appearance of the coronavirus shows a seasonal appearance.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2019

Attitude of spine surgeons towards the application of 3D technologies - a survey of AOSpine members

ÉLTES Endre Péter, KISS László, BARTOS Márton, EÖSZE Zsolt, SZÖVÉRFI Zsolt, VARGA Pál Péter, LAZÁRI Áron

Background - 3D technologies (3D virtual and physical model, 3D printing, computer aided engineering, finite element analysis based simulations) play an important role in personalized spine surgery. Objective - In collaboration with AOSpine a global, online survey-based study was performed in order to determine the acceptance rate and the factors which stand against the wider spread of 3D technologies. Methods - A survey containing 21 questions was developed and divided into five pages, every page corresponding to one chapter. Our analysis is based on the responses of 282 spine surgeons from 57 countries. To interpret our results in a global context, we used the Human Development Index of the respondent's countries in comparisons. Results - Significant difference between the AOSpine regions (p ≤ 0.05) was found, with the highest acceptance in Asia-Pacific region. There was no significant difference in acceptance score according to the field of spine surgery, or the surgical experience in years (p=0.77, and p=0.19). In the case of public practice, we found significantly higher acceptance compared to private and mixed (public and private) surgical practice (p ≤ 0.05). The acceptance of the technology varied based on the respondent’s resident country’s Human Development Index and was significantly different between „Medium” vs “Very high” (p = 0.0005) and „High” vs „Very high” (p=0.019) category. Significant positive correlation was found between the acceptance score and the HDI score (Spearman test, ρ = 0.37, p = 0.007). The main limitation factor was identified as the lack of information. Conclusion - There is high interest among spine surgeons towards the incorporation of 3D technologies into the clinical practice. Education, the healthcare system, and the economic environment plays a major role in acceptance. Our results provide the basis of a strategy to promote the application of 3D technologies.

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 20, 2018

[Hormesis: the importance of small doses in the modern medicine]

CSABA György

[The hormesis concept contains that high doses of some substances are harmful (toxic or inhibiting), at the same time small doses of these substances are adventageous and stimulating. The pretreatment with small doses helps to neutralize the later harmful or deleterious effects of large doses and this has therapeutical (clinical) importance in case of numerous diseases and treatments. The review use two examples for demonstrating the importance of hormesis: the effect of radiation and the effect to immunity, in addition general, evolutionary aspects are also highlighted. The importance of evolutionary aspects are discussed. It demonstrates the influence of hormesis to the human evolution and calls attention to the expected changes in human diseases (as inevitable consequences of hormesis in our chemically strongly infected world), which are transmitted to the progenies. Hormesis is a therapeutic possibility as well as a challenge for medicine, this means that it is advisable to use it in the therapy and must prepare ourselves to the challenges. ]