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Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 10, 2019

[Metals and cancer]

VETLÉNYI Enikő, RÁCZ Gergely

[We often tend to forget about our environment when looking for the origin of a disease. Inhaled air, drinking water and food, substances in contact with the skin all have an effect on the human body. Metals are indispensable parts of our everyday lives, their mining, processing and use cause a continuous exposure to them. Metal exert their effects on the body in various ways. Many of them are essential for maintaining homeostasis, but excessive or harmful metal intake can lead to health damage, including tumour formation through multiple attack points. Metals substitute each other during different transport processes and in the structure of proteins, they cause oxidative stress and bind to DNA, thereby damaging it. Applying them appropriately, the proapoptotic effect of the metal compounds is brought to the fore, thus becoming a therapeutic tool for tumours. Nowadays, platinum(II) compounds are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents and there are many ongoing studies to fi nd metal compounds with an ideal therapeutic and side-effect profi le. The aims of this article were to draw the attention to the dangers of metals in relation to cancer and to highlight their diverse application possibilities in current and future cancer therapy and diagnostics.]

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 28, 2020

[Opportunities and challenges in online support of cancer patients]

B. PAPP László

[The online support of oncological care may increase patients’ adherence, and by this it can contribute to the effectiveness of treatment, the improvement of quality of life and physician-patient communication as well as to a higher sense of control over the disease. With the online support of supportive care, patients and their relatives can get information on what they can do in order to improve their conditions, how they can recognize side effects and alarming symptoms of complications, what kind of changes they need to make in their lifestyle and how they can reduce the level of distress. Though the positive outcomes are feasible in many cases, quite considerable number of reports in the fi eld do not meet the requirements of evidence. The online support of oncological care may offer considerable opportunities, however, it may further increase inequality: the more educated and well-off patients with higher level of health awareness may benefi t more, meanwhile for the ones at the bottom of digital divide, the disadvantages may increase. The Hungarian internet coverage and accessibility make the broader online support technologically possible, however, its effectiveness may be hindered by the lack of human skills. Therefore, it is a real challenge to establish such platforms that can be used by the broadest spectrum of society, they are comprehensible for patients and their relatives with lower education, but also satisfying for patients and their relatives with higher level of literacy and expectations.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection]


[The modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus have been analyzed in detail recently. It can be stated that the deposition of micro-sized virus particles on different surfaces and in the air is the main reason for the strength and spread of the epidemic all over the world. Spread of virus is present in practically every event of our lives and daily activities. The usual movements of human-human contact, the specific habits of our own lives (face smoothing, eye rubbing etc.) increase the spread. The greatest threat is posed by infected but asymptomatic individuals as carriers of the virus, and the main concern is the speed of transmission dynamics. We have strong evidence that 1.5-2 meter distance, mask wearing, and eye protection are crucial in reducing the rate of virus transmission. It can be assumed that, like normal influenza virus infections, the appearance of the coronavirus shows a seasonal appearance.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Treatment and care of hypertensive patients during and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Possibilities and effectiveness of telemedicine]


[The course and outcome of an pandemic caused by coronaviruses are determined by many factors, such as the strength and dose of the infectious virus, the immune system of the affected individual, the underlying diseases, the speed of virus spread, age and environmental factors and methods of control. In old age, there is a significantly higher risk of developing severe cases and fatalities. The rate of loss of life is particularly high in social care and nursing homes. Hypertension as the underlying disease is the most common cause of death, but hypertension alone is not an independence risk factor, but the main reason is the co-morbidities and complications associated with viral infection. In the epidemic situation, the treatment and care of hypertensive patients poses special challenges for health and active primary and specialist care workers and, of course, for hypertonologists. The Hungarian Society of Hypertension expressed its opinions and recommendations to patients living at home and to doctors performing treatment and care during the Covid-19 virus epidemic and summarized the decision-making possibilities derived from the data obtained during the telemedicine consultation. We would like to present the details of the possibilities provided by telemedicine, the practical possibilities and advantages of the different methods of teleconsultation, and the models that can be implemented in a domestic environment. We have taken into account international experience to date, the new e-health strategy for chronic, non-communicable diseases and the WHO concept. Telemedicine, continuous teleconsultation ensures an optimal relationship between the patient and the doctor, increases the patient’s sense of security, improves drug adherence. The doctor receives reliable data about the patient’s condition and can send him instructions as well as information. The development of a harmonious balance between personal contact and telecommunications already shows the future, and the application of these methods must be developed in the epidemic-free period as well. Previous international (TASMINH-4, HOMED-BP etc.) and domestic (CONADPER-HU) studies have proved that telemonitoring of hypertensive patients can be successfully solved, improves patients’ drug adherence, increases the target blood pressure achievement rate and at the same time the patient will be the active part of the treatment. The method is especially useful in rural settlements without a doctor. Telemedicine monitoring of elderly and multimorbid patients is especially useful in social institutions and nursing homes. It is solved the continuous control of vital functions, ensures continuity of contact with the supervising physician and in urgent cases, allows for rapid intervention. Telemedicine is also of great importance due to the lack of human resources, as many things can be solved with such technology, there are no need so many personal encounters. In addition to influencing the course of this pandemic, it also plays an important role in efficiency, headcount, management and “convenience” in general practice and in all formes of medicine. The proposed models can not only be applied in an epidemic situation, but should continue to be part of everyday health work in future.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2020

[Comparative analysis of the full and shortened versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory]

ÁDÁM Szilvia, DOMBRÁDI Viktor, MÉSZÁROS Veronika, BÁNYAI Gábor, NISTOR Anikó, BÍRÓ Klára

[Background – The two free-to-use versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) have been increasingly utilised to assess the prevalence of burnout among human service workers. The OLBI has been developed to overcome some of the psychometric and conceptual limitations of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the gold standard of burnout measures. There is a lack of data on the structural validity of the Mini Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory in Hungary. Purpose – To assess the structural validity of the Hungarian versions of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and the Mini-Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Methods – We enrolled 564 participants (196 healthcare workers, 104 nurses and 264 clinicians) in three cross-sectional surveys. In our analysis we assessed the construct validity of the instruments using confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency using coefficient Cronbach’s α. Results – We confirmed the two-dimensional structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of the Mini-Oldenburg Inventory and a shortened version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Internal consistency coefficient confirmed the reliability of the instruments. The burnout appeared more than a 50 percent of the participants in every subsample. The prevalence of exhaustion was above 54.5% in each of the subsamples and the proportion of disengaged clinicians was particularly high (92%). Conclusions – Our findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Hungarian versions of the Mini-Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and a shortened version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory in the assessment of burnout among clinicians and nurses in Hungary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2016

[A visual based proto-consciousness model of human thinking]

SZŐKE Henrik, HEGYI Gabriella, CSÁSZÁR Noémi, VAS József Pál, KAPÓCS Gábor, BÓKKON István

[Background and objectives – Here we present our results of many years of research on the visual (pictorial) representation model expanded with some new ideas in a simplified form. Our goal is to make available our new pictorial model for a broader scientific community and to point to its possible importance in the future. Method – Own scientific publications, selective literature analysis and preliminary experiments. Results – Our several scientific publications and preliminary experiments were presented outlining our new molecular visual representation model as brain might be able to generate internal images by regulated biophotons in early V1 retinotopic visual regions. We also proposed that some of symptoms and characteristics of autism and savantism may suggest that visual (pictorial) thinking might be a possible cognitive model in the case of healthy people as well. Our model can present a uniform molecular basis for many visual related phenomena. Conclusions – It is possible that a so-called visual proto-consciousness might be developed in evolution, which is directly related to the retinotopic visual areas, and which has a different cognitive ability from verbal abilities. If our model can be exactly proved it presents a common molecular basis for various visual phenomena such as visual perception and imagination, phosphenes ect. and might open new ways in several fields of science such as visual prosthesis for the blind, artificial intelligence, visual neuroscience, cognitive and autism research.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

APRIL 18, 2020

[About general practitioners in Hungary - without political roadblocks]


[A brief introduction about the primary care’s evolution is rather improving the clear sight since it supports our right judgement and helps to draw right consequences. Thus, we are able to realise more precisely our strategic aims, actual domestic problems, and the forced pathways indicated by the prevailing trends and the action radius of our reform endeavours. The present study shows hidden risks encoded in human resources, specialists’ services and shed light into the grey zone of remuneration. Indeed, the trends are alarming, the spaces are narrow for actions nevertheless we can escape our century old legacy by innovative solutions. While re-thinking totally the whole system nevertheless maintaining all immanent principles we can just in the short run revitalise our ailing primary health care. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 10, 2020

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2020

[Current questions of multiple sclerosis: the secunder progressive form of the disease]


[Recent data suggest that long-term worsening is common in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and is largely independent of relapses or new lesion formation on brain MRI. The current definition of secunder progressive multiple sclerosis is worsening of disability independent of relapses over at least 6-month interval. Early focal inflammatory disease activity and spinal cord lesion are predictors of very-long term disease outcomes in relapse - onset multiple sclerosis. The potential of PET imaging to visualize hidden inflammation in MS brain in vivo is an important contribution for better understanding the progression of the disease. Therefore, PET imaging is a promising tool in detecting the conversion from relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis to secunder progressive form of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, neuro-axonal damage is the pathological substrate of permanent disability in different neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis. The neurofilament proteins have promise in this context because their levels rise upon neuro-axonal damage not only in the cerebrospinal fluid but also in blood. Patients with increased serum levels of neurofilament at baseline, independent of other clinical and MRI variables, experience significantly more brain and spinal cord volume loss over 2 years and 5 years of follow-up. The kynurenine-pathway abnormalities may be associated with the swich from early-mild stage multiple sclerosis to debilitating progressive forms of the disease. Analysis of these metabolites in serum may have application as multiple sclerosis disease biomarkers. Free radical action has been suggested as a causal factor in the illness. Increased free radical production and consumption of the scavenger molecules were found during the active phase of the disease. Based on the clinical findings (EXPAND Study) and pathomechanism of the disease siponimod is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsing remitting forms of multiple sclerosis, to include secunder progressive multiple sclerosis with active disease, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome.]