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Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 01, 2020

[Avoiding unlimited energy drink consumption is a matter of our heart]


[Energy drinks have been gaining unbroken popularity, especially among youngsters and children since they were introduced to the market. Manufacturers promise to improve performance and stamina with consuming the products, classified as non-alcoholic soft drinks. In addition to the vitamins and plant extracts, they contain a significant amount of caffeine and other stimulants (taurine, guarana). Among the active ingredients, caffeine has an outstanding effect and thereby a danger, since its overconsumption – in addition to milder he­mo­dynamic changes – can cause severe cardio­vascular consequences, cardiac arrhythmias, ion channel diseases, increased blood coagulation, myocardial infarction or reduced cerebral blood flow in susceptible consumers. Many case studies have also reported serious cardiovascular attacks among young chronic energy drink consumers. Health impairments of excessive and long-term consumption of energy drinks have been studied increasingly, however there is limited and contradictory evidence on the safety of consumption and the effectiveness of performance enhancement. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

FEBRUARY 28, 2017

[Investigation of nurses eating habits]


[The aim of the study: was to assess the characteristics of diet among nurses in relation to socio-demographic and workplace related factors. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2015 through a self-constructed online questionnaire. Data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 using chi square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Sixty percent of the 548 involved nurses are overweight. Monthly overtime correlates negatively with the number of daily meals (p=0.003) with having hot meals (p=0.022) and with the opinion about dietary habits (p=0.001). Calm meals are typical for 30%, eating vegetables, fruits and whole grain bakery products for 20% and only 24.3% drinks two litres per day. Having children has beneficial effects on dietary habits. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the majority of the nurses included are overweight and they have dissatisfactory diet. The reasons for these might be rooted in the characteristics of the job and the Hungarian eating habits.]

Hungarian Immunology

JANUARY 20, 2007

[Autoimmunity as a result of escape from RNA surveillance]


[The pathomechanisms of autoimmune diseases are still unknown. Numerous factors are thought to play a role in the formation of the diseases (genetic arrangement, hormonal factors, exogen and endogen viruses, etc.) and many hypotheses have been formulated to explain the role of these factors. Most of the theories suspect that disturbance of the immune system is the clue but according to other researchers the immune system performs properly and one has to find other alterations that could be blamed for the formation of the autoimmune diseases. The aim of our present work is to show that certain genetic alterations together with the mistake of the RNA surveillance system could lead to autoimmune reactions. Results of immune research conducted in the past two decades revealed that there are mutations in the hot spot region of exon 7 of the La gene in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients suffering from certain autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome, SLE). RNAs originated from the mutant gene contain premature termination codon and therefore the RNA surveillance mechanism should get rid of these RNAs in order to prevent the formation of mutant proteins. However, because of the mistake of the surveillance system mutant proteins are formed that could finally lead to the autoimmune reactions.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JANUARY 21, 2006


SZÁNTÓ Imre, ENDER Ferenc, BANAI János, ALTORJAY Áron, SELI Artúr, FARSANG Zoltán, VÖRÖS Attila

[INTRODUCTION - Potential risk factors leading to the development of squamous cell carcinoma in the oesophagus have been analyzed and summarized in a number of epidemiological studies. Authors disagree as to the pathogenic significance of the individual risk factors in various populations. However, it is commonly accepted that alcohol abuse and smoking play a significant role in the development of this disease. Several reports have suggested a positive relationship between oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the consumption of hot food and drink. A recent publication, however, claims that the consumption of hot drink is not a pathogenic factor in itself. In our study we wished either to confirm or to rule out a positive relationship between the development of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the history of consuming hot food or drink. PATIENTS AND METHODS - During the study period (1 January, 1993 - 31 September, 2004) 449 patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma were examined in our endoscopy laboratory. Histories were taken according to a predefined scheme. The aim was to identify patients with a history of consuming hot food or drink and to determine their percentage within the study population. A group of 738 patients examined endoscopically for indications other than oesophageal cancer served as controls. RESULTS - In the control group a significantly higher proportion of patients tended to consume hot food or drink compared to patients with cancer. Among the patients with oesophageal tumour who consumed hot food or drink a higher proportion was addicted to smoking and alcohol compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS - In our study population we failed to identify a positive relationship between the development of squamous cell carcinoma in the oesophagus and the habit of consuming hot food or drink. We suggest that consumption of hot food or drink may play some role in the development of oesophageal cancer if it is associated with simultaneous smoking and alcohol consumption.]

Hungarian Radiology

OCTOBER 20, 2004

[In vitro optimization of sequences applicable for the MR examination of the gastrointestinal tract with respect to certain contrast materials]

BABOS Magor, PALKÓ András, KARDOS Lilla, CSERNAY László

[PURPOSE - Optimization of gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences in order to visualize oral contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the small bowel using a 1-T unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS - Authors investigated the optimal appearance of four different potential oral contrast media (rosehip syrup, blackcurrant extract, iron(III)-desferrioxamine, cocoa) with different spin-echo and gradientecho sequences using a simple plastic model. They were searching the optimal solution by changing the parameters of the chosen sequences keeping an eye in every case on the signal-to-noise ratio, the contrast, the resolution, the artifacts and the signal intensity of the contrast materials. RESULTS - The gradient-echo sequences are suitable for imaging of the small bowel. Too short echo time should be avoided because of the increased formation of artifacts. A lot of artifacts can be eliminated using fat saturation. T2*- weighted gradient-echo sequences provide good appearance for the cocoa drink, as well as the three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence. The use of sequential gradientecho acquisition methods is advisable only in non-cooperating patients, because of their low signal-to-noise ratio. The iron(III)-desferrioxamine solution, the rosehip syrup and the blackcurrant extract are potential positive contrast agents on T1-weighted sequences. On the single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequence the rosehip syrup and the blackcurrant extract appear as negative contrast materials. CONCLUSIONS - Authors could select and optimize the sequences suitable for each contrast material and effective in small bowel MRI. The substances used in their experimental model are not harmful for humans when administered orally, so determination of additives is the only problem remained before their use in the clinical practice.]

Hungarian Radiology

DECEMBER 20, 2003

[Comparison of different gastrointestinal contrast materials for MR examination, an experimental model]

BABOS Magor, PALKÓ András, KARDOS Lilla, CSERNAY László

[PURPOSE - Evaluation of different gastrointestinal endoluminal contrast materials by using an experimental model. MATERIALS AND METHODS - Authors constructed a plastic container holding six plastic cups, thus making possible to evaluate different compounds and concentrations, simultaneously. The signal intensity of more than 15 different materials (commonly used contrast materials, fruit juices, cocoa, iron containing solutions) was measured by T1 and T2 weighted spin echo sequences in a 1T MR unit. The results were compared in tables and demonstrated by figures. RESULTS - The plastic container and cups made it possible to evaluate the contrast materials by MR examination. The fruit juices containing metallic components had high signal intensity on T1 weighted images, while on the T2 weighted images showed moderate to high signal intensity except the rosehip syrup and a special blackcurrant extract, which were of low signal intensity. Cocoa drink had low to moderate signal intensity on both the T1 and T2 weighted images. The signal intensity of the iron(III)-desferrioxamin solution increased on the T1 weighted images and decreased on the T2 weighted images in direct proportion to its iron concentration. CONCLUSION - The described in vitro model is an appropriate and risk-free solution for selecting the proper endoluminal contrast material, its concentration, and the best measuring sequences for defining the optimal in vivo MR bowel examination protocol. On the base of the experimental results rosehip syrup, blackcurrant extract, iron(III)- desferrioxamin and cocoa drink were selected for further in vitro and in vivo examinations.]

LAM Extra for General Practicioners

FEBRUARY 20, 2010



[Natural mineral waters in their "natural form" are meant for public consumption and are officially recognized waters by a certain definition which states that they possess beneficial qualities in medical respects due to their mineral and trace element contents. Our subsurface mineral waters are being bottled without manipulation from about five hundred wells and springs. Nowadays we drink mineral waters to satisfy our biological needs. Hopefully in place of the "germanic type" mineral waters containing traditionally higher level of minerals, the "mediterran type" mineral waters containing less salt will come to the front in the future. We consume above 15 grams pro day of salt in place of the suggested under 6 grams pro day. Reducing the salt content of the foods and consuming less salt can prevent the rising of blood pressure and tone down the risks of developing cardiovascular diseases. The Hungarian Society of Hypertension therefore announces the serious reduction of sodium chlorid consumption for the year 2010 as part of the STOP-SALT Program and the Hungarian National Cardiovascular Program possibly including the desire to consume less mineral water with high sodium levels.]

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 20, 2011

[Water intoxication caused by diuretics]

RADÓ János, KOVÁCS Andrea

[Water metabolism in the organism is regulated very exactly under normal circumstances. Sometimes, however, when the level of the antidiuretic hormone is inappropriately high and fluid consuming is not limited, water intoxication can develop. This is especially paradoxical during treatment with diuretics. Authors observed in a cachectic, potassium wasting, 87-year-old female patient, hyponatremia associated with clinical water intoxication developing in a hot period of summer, during long-term thiazide diuretic (chlorthalidone) treatment administered because of high blood pressure. Diagnosis was based besides the clinical picture on the severe hyponatremia and was supported by the relatively high urine osmolality in the presence of a very low plasma osmolality. Despite treatment of hyponatremia in accordance to the recommandations “overcorrection” occurred and turned into fatal hypernatremia. In the period of low plasma osmolality the patient was treated with intravenous infusions containing isotonic saline supplemented with potassium. When hypertonicity developed hypotonic intravenous infusions were given. Authors discuss the literature of hyponatremia with special reference to the dilemmas of therapy such as “slow” versus “rapid” correction as well as procedures to be done in case of “overcorrection”.]