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Lege Artis Medicinae

NOVEMBER 15, 2019

[Hypertension in the elderly ]

BARNA István

[Elevated isolated systolic pressure is the most common and greatest cardiovascular risk factor with age. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age and ex­ceeds 60% over 70 years. Proper treatment of hypertension in the elderly, even in very old age (> 80 years), increases life expectancy and reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. For patients over 65 years of age, the target blood pressure range is between 130-139 / 70-80 mmHg if the patient tolerates the treatment. In elderly patients with poorer conditions, systolic blood pressure may be <150 mmHg. White-coat hypertension is common, nondipper ratio is increased, autonomic nervous system dysregulation is more common, and orthostatic decrease of blood pressure. The renal function is decreased or already impaired, often resulting in poorer therapeutic cooperation due to impaired cognitive function. The blood pressure lowering effect of targeted lifestyle changes may be the same as medication monotherapy, with the main disadvantage of decreasing adherence over time, for which a proper physician-patient relationship is essential. First-line agents for the treatment of elderly hypertension include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), long-acting calcium channel blockers, and thiazide, thiazide-like diuretics. Beta-blockers should be used in the treatment of elderly hypertension if they have other indications (coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias). More than 70% of hypertensive patients should use combination therapy to achieve target blood pressure. Take advantage of fixed dose combination to improve compliance to optimize treatment. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 30, 2019

[Early experience with CyberKnife treatment in case of intra-, suprasellar hypernephroma metastasis]


[Among tumours found in the suprasellar region metastases are very rare and the most frequent primary tumours are lung and breast cancer. Data of a patient with clear cell renal carcinoma with intra-suprasellar metastasis will be discussed. As in most of the tumours in the sellar region, the first symptom was visual deterioration with visual field defect. A transsphenoidal debulking of the tumour was performed and the residual tumor was treated by CyberKnife hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Both our patient’s visual acuity and visual field impairment improved after the surgery and CyberKnife treatment. At 6-month after irradiation, MR of the sella showed a complete remission of the tumour. This was the first treatment with CyberKnife in our country in case of a tumour close to the optic chiasm. According to our best knowledge, there are 21 cases in the literature with renal cell carcinoma metastasis in the suprasellar region.]

Hypertension and nephrology

OCTOBER 23, 2019

[Blood pressure management for stroke prevention and in the acute stroke. The new guideline of European Society of Hypertension (ESH, 2018), European Society of Cardiology and Hungarian Society of Hypertension (HSH, 2018)]

JENEI Zoltán

[Hypertension is the leading modifiable risk factor for stroke. Its prevalence amongst stroke patient is about 60-70% and the benefit of blood pressure (BP) lowering therapy on stroke risk reduction is well established. However the optimal BP targets for preventing stroke and reducing stroke consequences have been controversial. The new European (ESC/ESH) and Hungarian (HSH) hypertension guideline published in 2018 highlighted the primary and secondary prevention of stroke and the BP management in the acute stroke care as well. According results from ACCORD, SPRINT, HOPE-3, and other metaanalysis the systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering < 120 mmHg has not favourable effect, thus in hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg. In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). In patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage careful acute BP lowering with iv. therapy, to <180 mmHg should be considered only in case of SBP ≥ 220 mmHg (IIaB). In patients with acute ischaemic stroke who are eligible for iv. thrombolysis, BP should be carefully lowered and maintained to < 180/105 mmHg for at least the first 24 h after thrombolysis (IIaB). If the patient is not eli gible for lysis and BP ≤ 220/110 mmHg, routine BP lowering drug therapy is not recommended inside 48-72 h (IA). In patients with markedly elevated BP > 220/110 mmHg who do not receive fibrinolysis, drug therapy may be considered, based on clinical judgement, to reduce BP by 15% during the first 24 h after the stroke onset (IIbC). After 72 h of acute stroke in case of hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg (IIaB). In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). If BP < 140/90 mmHg after stroke, the BP lowering should be considered (IIbA). It is recommended to initiate an antihypertensive treatment with combination, preferably single pill combination of renin-angiotensin system blockers plus a calcium channel blocker and/or a thiazide like diuretics (IA). Lowering SBP < 120 mmHg is not recommended due to advers events regardless of age and type of stroke either in primary or secondary stroke prevention.]

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2019

[The Expanded Disability Status Scale scoring in patients with multiple sclerosis]


[Gait disturbance is a major symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was first used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis for the assessment of disability, however it has become more and more widely used in clinical practice as well. Nowadays its use is essential in application of the new diagnostic criteria, the new clinical form classification and in monitoring the efficacy of therapies. EDSS is based on a standardised neurological examination, but focuses on those symptoms that are frequent in multiple sclerosis. Based on the examination it assesses seven functional systems: visual, brainstem, pyramidal, cerebellar, sensory, bowel-bladder and cerebral functions. EDSS scores can be determined based on the scores given in the functional systems and on testing the walking distance. In newer versions the “Ambulation score” has been added. This chapter clarifies the scores based on the maximal walking distance and the need for a walking aid to walk this distance. The Neurostatus/EDSS training method improves the reproducibility of the standardised neurological examination that forms the basis of the EDSS scoring. Of the tests assessing walking, the Timed-25 Foot Walk Test and the self-administered 12-Item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale are suitable for routine evaluation of walking performance. An increase of more than 20% in the Timed-25 Foot Walk may be considered a significant change in gait. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2019

Coexistence of cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and dural ectasia in type I neurofibromatosis

YALDIZ Mahizer

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1; also known as Von Recklinghausen’s disease) is a common autosomal dominant disease that occurs in the general population at the rate of 1 in 3000. Many NF-1 patients present with spinal malformations. A 54-year-old female patient was admitted to the Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology with gradually increasing swelling and spots on the body that had been present for a long period of time. Cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and dural ectasia (DE) were also detected. She was diagnosed with NF-1. NF-1 is routinely seen in dermatology practice. Coexistence of NF-1 with vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE rarely occurs. Our case is the second reported instance in the literature of NF-1 with a spinal anomaly in the cervical region, and the first reported instance of the coexistence of NF-1 with cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE.

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 10, 2019

[Hungarian Hypertension Registry. Different methods and effects of increasing physician-patient cooperation on target blood pressure]


[The life expectancy, the mortality and the development of complications of hypertensive patients are fundamentally influenced by the treatment, the effectiveness of care and physician-patient cooperation, the achievement of target blood pressure. Based on the database of the Hungarian Hypertonia Registry, we present three examples of the effect of different solutions for physician-patient cooperation on increasing the blood pressure target. During the two years between 2005 and 2007, we used a complex, versatile method of increasing the patient’s adherence in treated hypertensive patients (17,114 males and 21,772 women), with information, education, home-blood pressure diary, and continuous, regular physician- patient communication (sms, green phone line, website). The target blood pressure was significantly increased from 38.8% to 43.9%, and the rate of growth was higher in women. The increase was also significant in the elderly (over 70 years). In the first quarter of 2011, we launched a wide-ranging education and patient support campaign for 28,018 hypertensive patients under the ‘Everywhere Good, Best Home!’ subprogram for promoting of home blood pressure measurement and its use in therapy. 81.3% of the patients had completed the diaries under ther observation period, the full completion of the diaries was 91.3%. At the end of the third month, the target blood pressure of 135/85 mmHg for HBPM increased from baseline 21.2% to 48.8%. Growth was significant (P <0.001). In the year 2015-2016 we started a one-year, multicentric, prospective, observational study, in which 7735 patients aged 18-64 years were included from the database of Hungarian Hypertension Registry. In the non-active group (3313 people), treated hypertensive patients were controlled according to the traditional care program so far, while the active group members (4422) participated in an intensive care program with telemedicine (smart phone application) and other helping opportunities. The control was done at the end of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start. In the active group, blood pressure dier was done by smart phone and every month, in the non-active group, paper logging was done every 3 months. In the active group, the blood pressure dieries were filled with smart phone every month and in nonactive group the paper dieries only every 3 months. Patient adherence was high in both groups (around 70%) and in the active group was greater than in the nonactive group. Target blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) in the active group increased from 53.8% to 73.4% and in the non-active group from 49.9% to 68.1%. Studies have shown that patient interaction is determined by good communication between the care team and the patient, success of home blood pressure monitoring. The communicative ability of the care team (physician-nurse pharmacist) greatly influences the achievement of the therapeutic target. Modern telecommunications is another useful option.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

FEBRUARY 28, 2019

[Faces from the Hungarian Nursing Hall of Fame: the exemplary career of Katalin Durgó recipient of the Henry Dunant Meda]

BOROS Károlyné, FEDINECZNÉ VITTAY Katalin, PERKÓ Magdolna, SÖVÉNYI Ferencné

[In this part of their series on outstanding figures in Hungary’s nursing history authors present the life of Ms. Katalin Durgó, a Red Cross volunteer nurse-midwife, whose lifelong services to promote the humanitarian cause of the Red Cross were acknowledged by awarding to her, at the age of 83 years, the Henry Dunant Medal, the highest award of the Red Cross Movement. Ms. Durgó was the 5th awardee globally, the first ever Hungarian recipient and the second person to have been decorated in their lifetimes. Following her self-sacrificing and fearless work in the war theatres of WWI, Ms. Durgó worked as a local midwife in rural Hungary delivering one thousand babies as testified by her Midwife’s birth logbook. She carried out her work with a strong sense of conscientiousness, punctuality, untiring diligence, devotion and solid professional knowledge and skills; her personal and professional lives are shining examples for today’s nursing generation. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 20, 2019

[Perinatal faulty hormonal imprinting: early impact, late consequences]

CSABA György

[The description and basic study of hormonal imprinting were the first in the series of research, which led to the recognition of the role of perinatal chemical effects in the late (adult age) manifestation of some diseases and inclination to diseases. Today it is clear, that certain pathological states, as obesity or diabetes, hypo- or hyperactivity (autoimmunity and allergy) of immune system can be deduced to perinatal (hormonal or metabolic) imprinting. The perinatal hormonal (chemical) imprinting takes place at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptor and the target hormone which sets the binding capacity of the receptor for life. In the critical periods of ontogeny (in addition to the perinatal imprinting) it can be developed at weaning, in adolescence and in continuously dividing and differentiating cells during the whole life. It is provoked by considerable quantitative differences of the physiological hormone or the presence of strange target-hormone-like molecules. The faulty hormonal imprinting leads to the adult-age diseases at any time of life and is inherited epigenetically to the progeny generations. Faulty hormonal imprinting always could be present in earlier times however, at present, because of the erroneous multiplication of endocrine disruptors in the environment, nutrition and medicine, its importance is continuously growing. The effects of faulty hormonal imprinting seem to be dangerous however, it can be imagined in the far future also a positive effect by the transformation of the human endocrine system at an evolutionary route. In the metabolic or immunological imprinting as well, as in the DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) the foremost recognized hormonal (chemical) imprinting is materialized.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 20, 2019

[Treating methods of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and related difficulties in daily practice ]


[Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most common breathing disorder during sleep. Its incidence is between 2-4%, but in many cases, the disease is not recognized. It has many symptoms, but the most typical symptoms are loud snoring and daytime sleepiness. Treatment always consists of several elements depending on the patients’ specific needs. When deciding on which treatment to use efficiency and the patients’ compliance are the key factors. The necessity of the therapy can be determined by three criteria: clinical complaints (daytime discomfort), the severity of the breathing disorder and the accompanying cardiovascular diseases. Treating possibilities for the mild to moderate OSAS are lifestyle changes (losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedative drugs), positional therapy, oral appliances, and varied surgical corrections. For patients with moderate to severe OSAS and mild OSAS with severe symptoms the first line therapy is continuous positive airway pressure. In addition to presenting new therapeutic options, the authors describe the role of the family physician in the care of apnea patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2019

[The effect of bevacizumab monotherapy on progression free survival in recurrent glioblastoma]


[Introduction, the aim of study - Glioblastoma, WHO grade IV is the most frequent primary malignant brain tumor in adults. There are few articles and result about the efficacy of bevacizumab monotherapy. The aim of our paper is to examine the effect of bevacizumab therapy on progression free and overall survival in an extended database of recurrent glioblastoma patients. Patients and methods - In our retrospective study, patients with recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab had been collected. All of our patients received first line chemo-irradiation according the Stupp protocol treatment. The histological diagnosis was primary or secondary glioblastoma in every patient. The prognostic features of primary and secondary glioblastomas were statistically analyzed. Results - Eighty-six patients were selected into the retrospective analysis. The histological diagnosis was primary glioblastoma in 65 patients (75.6%) and secondary glioblastoma in 21 patients (24.4%). The mean follow up period was 36.5 months. The mean second progression free survival beside bevacizumab therapy was 6.59 months and the mean overall survival was 24.55 months. In secunder glioblastoma cases, the mean second progression free survival was 6.16 months and the mean overall survival was 91.94 months. Conclusion - The bevacizumab therapy is a safe option in recurrent glioblastoma patients. Bevacizumab therapy has a positive effect both on progression free and overall survival and our results confirm the findings in the literature. There is no statistically significant difference in the second progression free survival between glioblastoma subtypes.]