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Hypertension and nephrology

JUNE 24, 2020

[Hypertension and Covid-19 – Part I. Significance of age, underlying diseases, and ACEI/ARB therapy in hypertension and co-morbidities during SARS-Cov2 infection]


[The appearance of the Covid-19 epidemic in different continents shows specific clinical features. Confirmed infected patients are detectable from approximately 30 years, with a maximum between 40 and 70 years of age. At the same time, however, a significant proportion of those who die from the infection come from patients over 65 years. The prevalence and mortality rates of the hypertensive population show a very similar formation. Based on the data collected, it is not surprising that hypertension as the underlying disease in the Covid- 19 epidemic is the first in all analysis. A more precise analysis clarified that it is not hypertension per se, but co-morbidities and complications of hypertension that play a primary role behind large-scale mortality in old age, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Data from China, North America, and Italy suggest that hypertension and diabetes – and in North America, pathological obesity – in infected patients actually only reflect the prevalence of these diseases in a given population. The presence of comorbidities (coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmia, chronic kidney disease) – based on multivariate logistic regression analysis – presents a more risk for severe clinical course and mortality. Some recent analyses have provided strong evidence that ACEI/ARB treatment does not pose a higher risk for the course or outcome of infection. Their administration is constantly needed in hypertension and comorbidities due to their organ protective and slowing the progression of diseases.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2020

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]


[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2020

Life threatening rare lymphomas presenting as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: a diagnostic challenge

TOLVAJ Balázs, HAHN Katalin, NAGY Zsuzsanna, VADVÁRI Árpád, CSOMOR Judit, GELPI Ellen, ILLÉS Zsolt, GARZULY Ferenc

Background and aims – Description of two cases of rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma and secondary T-cell lymphoma diagnosed postmortem, that manifested clinically as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). We discuss causes of diagnostic difficulties, deceptive radiological and histological investigations, and outline diagnostic procedures based on our and previously reported cases. Case reports – Our first case, a 48-year-old female was admitted to the neurological department due to paraparesis. MRI suggested LETM, but the treatments were ineffective. She died after four weeks because of pneumonia and untreatable polyserositis. Pathological examination revealed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Our second case, a 61-year-old man presented with headache and paraparesis. MRI showed small bitemporal lesions and lesions suggesting LETM. Diagnostic investigations were unsuccessful, including tests for possible lymphoma (CSF flow cytometry and muscle biopsy for suspected IVL). Chest CT showed focal inflammation in a small area of the lung, and adrenal adenoma. Brain biopsy sample from the affected temporal area suggested T-cell mediated lymphocytic (paraneoplastic or viral) meningoencephalitis and excluded diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The symptoms worsened, and the patient died in the sixth week of disease. The pathological examination of the presumed adenoma in the adrenal gland, the pancreatic tail and the lung lesions revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, as did the brain and spinal cord lesions. Even at histological examination, the T-cell lymphoma had the misleading appearance of inflammatory condition as did the MRI. Conclusion – Lymphoma can manifest as LETM. In cases of etiologically unclear atypical LETM in patients older than 40 years, a random skin biopsy (with subcutaneous adipose tissue) from the thigh and from the abdomen is strongly recommended as soon as possible. This may detect IVL and provide the possibility of prompt chemotherapy. In case of suspicion of lymphoma, parallel examination of the CSF by flow cytometry is also recommended. If skin biopsy is negative but lymphoma suspicion remains high, biopsy from other sites (bone marrow, lymph nodes or adrenal gland lesion) or from a simultaneously existing cerebral lesion is suggested, to exclude or prove diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, IVL, or a rare T-cell lymphoma.

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2020

[Early experiences in surgical treatment of thoracic disc herniation from posterior transdural approach at Neurosurgery Clinic Szeged University]


[Background – Because of the rare occurrence of thoracic disc herniation and surgery needed treatment the used approaches and their efficiency are still subjects of discussions. In Hungarian practice, the most frequent explorations are costotransversectomy and laminectomy, but there are many other important methods available like thoracoscopic and posterior transdural approaches. This case report will present the benefits and the surgical procedure of posterior transdural sequesterectomy, carry out for the first time in Hungary at the Neurosurgical Department on Szeged University. Case presentation – A 50-year-old female patient with achondroplasic nanism has been operated several times since 2011. She suffered from a progressive, multi-segment affected degenerative discopathy and myelopathy. Finally in the background of the recurrent paraparesis was confirmed thoracic disc herniations at the levels of T8 and T9. The use of intraoperative electrophysiology was not feasable, because the earlier described cervical myelopathy. For this reason we used the posterior transdural approach, as the best and safest, visual control warranted technique. Conclusions – The posterior transdural approach offers an alternative option for experienced surgeons, furthermore in contrast with traditional, technically difficult to implement or special instrumentation demanding approaches this technique seems to be more efficient.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[Novel strategy in the radiotherapy of metastatic brain tumors: simultaneous whole brain radiotherapy and integrated stereotactic radiosurgery]


[Background and purpose – Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) tumors has always played an important role in development of radiotherapy techniques. Precise patient immobilisation, non-coplanar field arrangement, conformal treatment, arc therapy, radiosurgery, application of image fusion to radiation planning or re-irradiation were first introduced into clinical routine in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods – A modern multifunctional radiation instrument, Novalis TX has been installed at the University of Pécs two years ago. New methods, such as real time 3D image guided therapy, dynamic arc therapy and ultra-conformity offer further progress in treatment of CNS tumors. Whole brain irradiation and simultaneous fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery or integrated boost seem to be an optimal method in the treatment of not only soliter or oligo, but even a higher number (4-9) and not typically radiosensitive brain metastases. The new treatment strategy is illustrated by presentation of four case histories. Results – Treatment protocol was completed in all cases. Treatment period of 1.5 to 3 weeks, and treatment time of only a few minutes were not stressful for the patients. A quite remarkable clinical improvement as to general condition of the patients was experienced in three cases. Follow-up images confirmed either remission or a stable disease. Conclusions – Simultaneous whole brain radiotherapy and integrated stereotactic radiosurgery is a reproducible, safe method that offers an effective irradiation with delivery of definitive dosage even in cases with radio-insensitive brain metastasis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2016

[Endoscopic removal of tuberculum sellae meningeoma through endonasal transsphenoidal approach]


[Experiences acquired in our department with endoscope assisted microsurgical transsphenoidal pituitary surgery encouraged us to expanded the endoscopic approach to skull base lesions. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach proved to be less traumatic to the traditional microsurgical approaches, yet very effective. The endoscopic transsphenoidal technique was applied in a patient havin anterior skull base tumor. The patient was a 49-year-old woman with several months history of left visual defect. The magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the skull revealed a midline anterior fossa space-occupying lesion measuring 21×16×22 mm located on planum sphenoidale, tuberculum sellae and intrasellar. The tumor compressed both optic nerves and optic chiasm. Total resection of the tumor was achieved by use of endoscopic transnasal, transsphenoidal technique. This is the first reported case of an anterior fossa meningeoma being treated by an endoscopic transsphenoidal technique in Hungary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[A rare complication of a rare disease; stroke due to relapsing polychondritis]


[Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of cartilaginous structures. Its diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features such as laboratory parameters, biopsy. Neurological complications occur in 3% of the cases and are classified as an important cause of death. The cranial nerve disorders are most common but hemiplegia, ataxia, myelitis, polyneuritis, seizures, confusion, hallucination and headache can also happen. The aetiology of central nervous system involvement is still unknown. Moreover stroke has rarely reported in these patients. The diagnosis of stroke is challenging because of its rarity among these patients. Perhaps vasculitis is the common underlying mechanism. Also meningitis and encephalitis can occur during the course of RP. A 44 year-old woman was admitted with uncontemplated left hemiparesis, redness, swelling, and tenderness of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the right hand and the cartilaginous portion. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. Vasculitis biomarkers were normal in our patient. Carotid and vertebral artery doppler ultrasonography, cranial and cervical MR Angiography were normal. Echocardiography showed a mild mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation. Our patient had the history of auricular polychondritis but she had not been diagnosed. Hemiparesis was her first neurological manifestation that led her to doctors for diagnosis. Our patient fulfilled the criteria of RP so no biopsy was needed. She was treated with oral prednisolone (80 mg/day) and aspirin (300 mg/day) and now she is on 10 mg prednisolone and 150 mg azathioprine. Two months later her physical and neurological symptoms returned to normal.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2016

Internet and stroke awareness in the young hungarian population

BARI Ferenc, TÓTH Anna, PRIBOJSZKI Magda, NYÁRI Tibor, FORCZEK Erzsébet

Background – Although stroke mortality rate in Hungary has tapered off over the last years, it is still twice the European average. This statistic is alarming and a coordinated response is needed to deal with this situation when considering new ways of communication. There are currently more than 300 websites in Hungarian related to stroke prevention, acute stroke treatment, recovery and rehabilitation. Aims and/or hypothesis – We sought to identify base level of stroke knowledge of the Hungarian students and the efficiency with which the knowledge disseminated by internet is actually utilized. Methods – We surveyed 321 high-school and university students to determine their ability to extract specific information regarding stroke from Hungarian websites. The base level of knowledge was established by asking 15 structured, close-ended questions. After completing the questionnaire, students were asked to search individually on stroke in the internet where all the correct answers were available. After a 25-min search session they answered the same questionnaire. We recorded and analyzed all their internet activity during the search period. Results – The students displayed a fair knowledge on the basics of stroke but their results did not change significantly after the 25-min search (53±13% vs. 63±14%). Only correct information given on demographic facts improved significantly. Most of the students used very simple search strategies and engines and only the first 5-10 web-pages were visited. Conclusion – Analysis of the most often visited web-pages revealed that although stroke-related Hungarian web-based resources contain almost all the important and required information the unsuitable structure, lack of simplicity and verbosity hinder their effective public utilization.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

OCTOBER 30, 2019

[Conference Report: Pressure and venous ulcers’ wound care in a simulated learning environment ]


[Department of Nursing of Faculty of Heath Sciences Semmelweis University is a part of an international collaboration. The aim of the co-operation of 5 european universities is to labour an online theoretical and a simulation-based practical curriculum to improve the chronic wound care knowledge of nursing students and health care workers. 4th year nursing students presented the results of their research at the first international conference of the co-operation in december of 2018, in Istanbul. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

APRIL 18, 2020

[What is worth to know about COVID-19 for (not only) a cardiologist]

HEPP Tamás, CSÉKE Balázs, BENCZÚR Béla

[SARS-CoV-2 virus infection sprang from Wuhan the capital of the Chinese Hubei province, at the end of 2019 and caused a worldwide pandemic with 1.5 million confirmed cases and claimed almost 100 000 victims until the beginning of April, 2020. First analyses of Chinese COVID-patients confirmed that diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases were highly prevalent among SARS-CoV2 infected patients, and might be associated with poor outcome. As previously shown for SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 similarly utilizes ACE2 as receptor for viral alveolar cell entry. A suspicion has arisen that the widely used ACE-inhibitor/ARB therapy could be potentially harmful for patients suffering from COVID-19 infection as these agents upregulate the ACE2-expressions. From the other point RAAS-blockade might be beneficial due to fact that ACE2 counters the deleterious effects of Angiotensin II. Authors provide a comprehensive over­view of the most recent literature and summarize the link between COVID-19 and car­diovascular disease. It is important to em­phasize that there are no available hu­man evidences confirming if the RAAS-in­hi­bitor therapy were harmful or helpful in pa­tients suffering from COVID-19.]