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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

OCTOBER 30, 2019

[Biomonitoring of lead exposure among workers: the role of the occupational health nurse ]


[Biological monitoring (biomonitoring) in occupational safety and health is the detection of substances (biomarkers) in biological samples of workers, compared to reference values. This article is limited to Lead (Pb) exposures, as it is one of the most important models for biomonitoring of exposure, with the blood Pb concentration as a predominant choice in occupational health. This article examines the nature of and risk factors for lead exposure among workers, the scope of the problem, the legislative and regulatory framework relevant to biomonitoring, and the role of occupational health nurses in promoting a culture of safety to prevent exposures. ]

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 30, 2019

[A chemist’s thoughts about alternative medicine]


[Alternative medicine offers a virtual challenge for classical 21st century evidence based medicine even that the latest is justifi ed by effi cacy and survival improvements. The theoretical basis of the alternative medicine is not justifi ed by experimental or clinical evidence. Ethics of the contemporary pharmacologic marketing equally considers the interest of the patient, the doctor and the pharmacological company. Unfortunately, alternative medicine does not consider market ethics and gains unjustifi ed competitive advantage. Beside the statements of the professional organizations, it is necessary continuously inform the patients and the doctors on the lack of real evidence on the effi cacies of these ”alternative” medical solutions.]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 30, 2020

[Treatment and care of hypertensive patients during and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Possibilities and effectiveness of telemedicine]


[The course and outcome of an pandemic caused by coronaviruses are determined by many factors, such as the strength and dose of the infectious virus, the immune system of the affected individual, the underlying diseases, the speed of virus spread, age and environmental factors and methods of control. In old age, there is a significantly higher risk of developing severe cases and fatalities. The rate of loss of life is particularly high in social care and nursing homes. Hypertension as the underlying disease is the most common cause of death, but hypertension alone is not an independence risk factor, but the main reason is the co-morbidities and complications associated with viral infection. In the epidemic situation, the treatment and care of hypertensive patients poses special challenges for health and active primary and specialist care workers and, of course, for hypertonologists. The Hungarian Society of Hypertension expressed its opinions and recommendations to patients living at home and to doctors performing treatment and care during the Covid-19 virus epidemic and summarized the decision-making possibilities derived from the data obtained during the telemedicine consultation. We would like to present the details of the possibilities provided by telemedicine, the practical possibilities and advantages of the different methods of teleconsultation, and the models that can be implemented in a domestic environment. We have taken into account international experience to date, the new e-health strategy for chronic, non-communicable diseases and the WHO concept. Telemedicine, continuous teleconsultation ensures an optimal relationship between the patient and the doctor, increases the patient’s sense of security, improves drug adherence. The doctor receives reliable data about the patient’s condition and can send him instructions as well as information. The development of a harmonious balance between personal contact and telecommunications already shows the future, and the application of these methods must be developed in the epidemic-free period as well. Previous international (TASMINH-4, HOMED-BP etc.) and domestic (CONADPER-HU) studies have proved that telemonitoring of hypertensive patients can be successfully solved, improves patients’ drug adherence, increases the target blood pressure achievement rate and at the same time the patient will be the active part of the treatment. The method is especially useful in rural settlements without a doctor. Telemedicine monitoring of elderly and multimorbid patients is especially useful in social institutions and nursing homes. It is solved the continuous control of vital functions, ensures continuity of contact with the supervising physician and in urgent cases, allows for rapid intervention. Telemedicine is also of great importance due to the lack of human resources, as many things can be solved with such technology, there are no need so many personal encounters. In addition to influencing the course of this pandemic, it also plays an important role in efficiency, headcount, management and “convenience” in general practice and in all formes of medicine. The proposed models can not only be applied in an epidemic situation, but should continue to be part of everyday health work in future.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2020

[Recurrent inhibition during Jendrassik maneuver]


[Objective – Conflicting theoretical models exist regarding the mechanism related to the ability of the Jendrassik maneuver to reinforce reflex parameters. Our objective was to investigate if vigorous handgrip would induce changes in recurrent inhibition of soleus motoneurons. Method – Soleus H reflex was evoked by stimulating the tibial nerve at rest and during bilateral vigorous handgrip, alternating single (H1) and paired stimulation (H2). At paired stimulation we used interstimulus intervals of 10, 15, 20 and 25 ms and supramaximal test stimulus. H1- and H2-wave amplitudes were expressed as percentage of maximal M-wave amplitude. Conditioned H2 wave maximal (H2max) and minimal (H2) amplitudes evoked at rest and expressed as a percentage of the unconditioned H1max amplitude were compared with the corresponding values obtained during handgrip by means of paired Student test and Bonferroni correction. Subjects – At the study participated 28 healthy volunteers. Results – The H1max/Mmax × 100 values obtained during handgrip (37.5±10.1) were significantly higher than those obtained at rest (27.1±7.4). The H2max/H1max × 100-va­lues obtained at paired stimulation were significantly higher during handgrip than at rest, while no significant diffe­rence was found between the H2/H1max × 100-values obtained during handgrip and at rest respectively. Discussion – The H2max/H1max is determined by both the excitability of the motoneurons and the recurrent inhibition elicited by the conditioning stimulus, while H2/H1max indicates only the level of recurrent inhibition. According to our results the Renshaw cells retain their inhibitory effect on the soleus alpha motoneurons during remote muscle contraction. Conclusion – Soleus H reflex enhancement during Jendrassik maneuver is not due to decrease of recurrent inhibition. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[Attachment as a predictor of risk for eating disorders on a representative hungarian adult sample]

SZALAI Dömötör Tamás, CZEGLÉDI Edit

[Background and purpose – Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Methods – Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called „Hungarostudy 2013” (N=2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD=18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. Results – The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N=76) among the respondents (N=1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t(1888)=-3.939, p<0.001), and significantly predicted the risk for eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR=1.09, p=0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR=0.98, p=0.515). Younger age (OR=0.97, p<0.001), higher level of depression (OR=1.09, p<0.001) and higher body mass index (OR=1.08, p<0.001) were also significant cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. Conclusion – The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment’s further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

Cyanocobalamin and cholecalciferol synergistically improve functional and histopathological nerve healing in experimental rat model

ALBAY Cem, ADANIR Oktay, AKKALP Kahraman Asli, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, GULAEC Akif Mehmet, BEYTEMUR Ozan

Introduction - Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a frequent problem among young adults. Hopefully, regeneration can occur in PNI unlike central nervous system. If nerve cut is complete, gold standard treatment is surgery, but incomplete cuts have been tried to be treated by medicines. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare clinical and histopathological outcomes of independent treatment of each of Vitamin B12 (B12) and Vitamin D3 (D3) and their combination on sciatic nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods - Experimental animal study was performed after the approval of BEH Ethics Committee No. 2015/10. 32 rats were grouped into four (n=8) according to treatment procedures, such as Group 1 (controls with no treatment), Group 2 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12), Group 3 (oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3), Group 4 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12+ oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3). Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and histopathological analysis were performed. Results - SFIs of Group 2, 3, 4 were statistically significantly higher than controls. Group 2 and 3 were statistically not different, however Group 4 was statistically significantly higher than others according to SFI. Axonal degeneration (AD) in all treatment groups were statistically significantly lower than in Group 1. AD in Group 4 was significantly lower than in Group 2 and 3; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and 3. There was no significant difference between Group 1,2 and 3 in Axonolysis (A). But A of Group 4 was significantly very much lower than all others. Oedema- inflammation (OE-I) in all treatment groups were significantly lower than in Group 1; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and group 4. OE-I in Group 2 and 4 were significantly lower than in Group 3. There were no significant differences between Group 1, 2 and 3 in damage level scores; score of Group 4 was significantly lower than of Group 1. Conclusions - B12 and D3 were found effective with no statistically significant difference. But combined use of B12 and D3 improve nerve healing synergistically. We recommend combined use of B12 and D3 after PNI as soon as possible.

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 20, 2019

[Practical use of meta-analyses in predicting disease risk, outcome, and therapy response in breast cancer]


[Breast cancer is globally the most frequent malignant disease in women with increasing incidence. Meta-analyses using data from a large set of patients combining genetic and standard clinicopathological features provide valuable models in predicting disease risk, outcome and therapy response. With the advent of molecular technologies, the amount of available data generated for each tumor and each patient is growing exponentially. The increased data availability allows the development of new innovative systems enabling to discover more effective prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The goal of this review is to summarize meta-analyses that utilize data from countless patients to provide breast cancer risk prediction (Gail-model, Claus-model, BRCApro, IBIS, BOADICEA), and prediction of prognosis and expected therapy response (PREDICT, Magee). In the last part of the review we introduce online analytical tools (KMplot, ROCplot) developed to examine, rank and validate new prognostic and predictive biomarker candidates.]

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 20, 2019

[The role of the microbiome in the etiology and treatment of neoplastic diseases]

SCHWAB Richárd, BACSUR Emese, TORDAI Attila, PETÁK István

[Experimental data on the role of the microbiome in the onset and progression of infl ammatory diseases and cancer have been accumulated for years. An important milestone in this respect was the discovery that APC mutant mice in sterile conditions do not develop colon cancer of the FAP type. The direct role of the Enterobacteriaceae and Fusobacteriaceae bacterial families were also shown in the pathomechanism of the same experimental model. The toxic effect of chemotherapy on the gut fl ora has been well documented, but it may very well be that this putative side effect is part of the effi cacy, primarily in the case of adjuvant chemotherapy. The fi rst reproducible methods of microbiome molecular diagnostics are already available today. In addition to standard large clinical studies, we can increasingly rely on evidence of molecular pathomechanism and „real-world” clinical experience in the clinical interpretation of the microbiome. The overview summarizes the results of the fi eld research and its translation possibilities in terms of routine clinical practice.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 10, 2019

[Hungary’s schizophrenic health policy - solutions under pressure ]


[There are internationally accepted models of health services that succeeded more or less in compromising public and private economy. Unfortunately, Hungary’s health policy was unable since ever to solve this problem. After the fall of the Communist health system (1989) this country was free to implement any means and ways without any external pressure thus only the health policy is responsible for our prevailing circumstances. Additionally, if seen from abroad the well-established medical grease-money of 50-100 thousand million HUF a year in medical services is a surplus burden of socioeconomic corruption. No question, it is necessary to explore any dysfunctions and negotiate with all particular pressure groups, however these actions do not result is system level changes. After 30 years of mismanagement it is time to take over a sound compact model which resembles our traditions and implement while respecting its limits of elasticity. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 20, 2019

[The Good, the Bad and the Ugly ]


[Reading the title most of us (but not everyone) can recall from our memories the classic heroes of the movie of Sergio Leone and we can almost hear (or not?) the melody of Ennio Morricone. This sentence is full of strangeness, isn’t it? However it’s hardly at all sure that everyone had seen the movie (indeed certainly not) and the catching music is maybe elusive. Like or not we are related to classics of lipidology, as well. Most of the readers of this review of the three clinicians know much (but not everything!) of these topics but probably for some of them this paper will arise their further interest. We are going to separate the “inseparable”, only together functioning whole thing in order to build a model in our thinking regarding its operation. This is what we do with the scientific cognition. We are making models, simplifying indeed… (sometimes erroneously) proclaiming. Let’s throw out our (or at least try to do it) the stereotypes living inside us. Let’s talk about the “always” good HDL-cholesterol, the bad LDL-cholesterol and the ugly (or cruel) triglyceride, actually (and now the analogy is lost of the three key players of the classic western movie) about the other faces of the together ugly and bad lipoprotein(a) according to a lot of opinions! As everything is connected with everything in the human body and nothing is accidental - nothing can be only good, bad or ugly nor the Good, the Bad and the Ugly yet.]