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Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2018

[Paradigm shift in management of patients with vertigo and imbalance]

MIKE Andrea, TAMÁS T. László

[Dizziness is one of the most common causes of medical visits. Management of the dizzy patient may be challenging both for the general practitioner, in emergency departments, and special clinics, as behind a seemingly homogeneous clinical presentation several very different etiologies may occur. Research of the last two century enriched our knowledge about physiology and pathophysiology of the vestibular system. Much knowledge is now available about the labyrinth being able to sense head motions and gravity, processing of afferent vestibular stimuli, reflectory oculomotor and postural control, or recovery of the vestibular system. Based on scientific results new beside tests have been introduced including provocation maneuvers for detecting ectopic otoliths in different semicircular canals, head impulse test to examine function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, and the HINTS+ battery for differentiation of peripheral or central origin of an acute vestibular syndrome. Technical innovations like videooculography and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials enable us to selectively and side-specifically examine the function of all six semicircular canals and two otolith organs. Pathomechanism of disorders with vertigo and dizziness became more clear resulting in the development or amendment of diagnostic criteria of several vestibular disorders including vestibular migraine, Menière’s disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, persistent postural-perceptual dizziness, bilateral vestibulopathy. Broader knowledge about the pathomechanism promoted the development of new therapeutic methods like different repositioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, pharmaceutical therapies, vestibular rehabilitation, and psychotherapy. We aimed to summarize the novelties in the field of oto-neurology.]

Hypertension and nephrology

DECEMBER 08, 2012

[The interpretation of metabolic syndrome]

KÉKES Ede, KISS István

[The significant increase of the splanchnic ectopic fat, the disturbance of carbohidrate metabolism, atherogenic dyslipidemia and high blood pressure creates the syndrome so called deadly quartet. These components promote the early appearance of cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, etc.) as well as the enormous growth of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was thought, that the ectopic fat is the only background of the syndrome and the insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia as well as the disruption of associated endocrine regulatory balance system and elevated sympathetic drive explain jointly the clinical events. We now know that cytokines released by ectopic fat issue (CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 etc.) launch processes in our organism, which contribute to the development of vascular remodelling, endothelial dysfunction and in the end to that of atherothrombotic processes. The diagnostic criteria of the syndrome were changed continuously parallel growing theoretical knowledge till 2009, when on the Harmony Conference the important components of the syndrome were accepted, but some laboratory and other parameters do not enter into everyday praxis.]


FEBRUARY 20, 2003

[Is there any association between the location of the parathyroid adenoma and the presence of nephrolithiasis in primary hyperparathyroidism?]


[INTRODUCTION - The majority of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism recurrently produce kidney stones, while the rest have other clinical manifestations (metabolic bone disease, acute pancreatitis, depression, etc.).The aim of this study was to examine whether there is any association between the clinical symptoms and the location of adenoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The records of 91 patients (10 males, 81 females, mean age: 61.9 years, range: 20-70 ys) operated for primary hyperparathyroidism between 1995 and 2000 were retrospectively evaluated. One patient was excluded from the study because of parathyroid cancer. Nephrolithiasis was noted in 55 cases and other clinical symptoms in 35 cases. The diagnosis of pHPT was confirmed by the surgery, which also determined the precise location of the adenoma. RESULTs - In the kidney stone group, the adenoma was located in the left inferior parathyroid gland in 50 cases (91 %), (χ2=67.5, p<0,00001), in the left superior parathyroid gland in 2 patients, while in 3 patients multiple hyperplasia was found. In the group without nephrolithiasis the adenoma was located in the right inferior parathyroid gland in 24 patients (69 %), (χ2=43.9, p<0,0001), while in 3 patients each it was detected in the left and right superior parathyroid gland, respectively. Multiple hyperplasia was also observed in 3 patients and ectopic location in 2 patients. CONCLUSION - The results raise the possibility that the clinical manifestation of the pHPT, i.e., whether it is or is not accompanied with nephrolithiasis, may be influenced by the location of the adenoma.This suggests that either the biological effects of the parathyroid hormone or its biologically active hormone fragments are different according to in which of the four glands it is produced.Therefore, we recommend that in patients with kidney stones where the preoperative imaging fails to reveal the location of the adenoma, during surgery the search for the adenoma should be started at the left inferior parathyroid gland.]

Hungarian Radiology

APRIL 07, 2009

[Difficulties in the diagnosis of ectopic ureter]

KONCZ Júlia, RÉTI Gyula, NYÁRI Edit, SHAIKH M. Shoaib

[INTRODUCTION - Ureter ectopy refers to the distal opening of the ureter at the site of the bladder neck or lower. 70-80% of the ectopic ureters are associated with pyelectasia and duplicated ureters. The incidence of this is 2-3 times higher in females. CASE REPORT - Following is a case report of a boy who was diagnosed with left-sided pyelectasia during a prenatal ultrasound scan. The postnatal ultrasound revealed a duplicated pelviceal cavity and ureter. The upper pole ureter and the pelvis demonstrated dilatation. At 8 months of age a left side heminehprectomy was performed. Two years postoperatively a follow-up ultrasound revealed a dilatation of the ureteral stump on the left side, which progressed. On MCUG the ureteral stump was identified inserting on to the proximal urethra. Cystography and MR urography demonstrated a ureteral stump which inserted on to the urethra. A repeat surgery was performed to remove the stump. Patient is symptom-free ever since. CONCLUSION - In ectopic, non-refluxing ureters long-term follow-up is necessary following heminephrectomy. A ureter stump besides the bladder can cause serious diagnostical difficulties. Also, it is possible that a dilating stump may lead to a reflux not identified earlier. MCUG and MR urography can help to clear delineate the pathology.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2008


TÓTH Vanda, HEJJEL László, KALMÁR Zsuzsanna, FOGARASI András, AUER Tibor, GYIMESI Csilla, SZŰCS Anna, JANSZKY József

[Background - Sudden death appears in 8-17% of epilepsy patients non-responding to antiepileptic therapy. Some studies suggest that the most common cause of death is seizure-related cardiac arrhythmia. Aim of study - To analyze the alteration of the heart rate six hours before and after the seizures. Methods - Eighteen patients suffering from focal epilepsy were examined before epilepsy surgery. Video-EEG-ECG was carried out for 2-10 days, and 32 seizures were registered. Analysis of the heart rate was based on the 5- minute-long epochs of the ECGs taken at the 5-10-15- 30th minutes and at the 1-3-6th hours before and after seizures. Results - The heart rate increases (from average 69 beats/min to 92 beats/min, p<0.001) immediately after seizures, tough significantly higher heart rate was observed 3 hours after seizures. There were no patients with severe periictal bradycardia. In one of our patients, ectopic cardiac rhythm occurred after a generalized tonicclonic seizure. Conclusions - We can conclude that the sympathic activity increases while the parasympathic activity decreases after seizures. The observed alterations lasted for a long time and predict to fatal arrhythmias. These suggest that sudden death in epilepsy can be induced by cardiac arrhythmias connected with epileptic seizures.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 16, 2007

Hungarian Radiology

JANUARY 20, 2003

[Heterotopic pregnancy]


[INTRODUCTION - Simultaneous presence of intrauterine and extrauterine gestations is very rare. CASE REPORT - A 26 year old multiparous woman known to be 10 weeks pregnant presented with severe abdominal pain. Transabdominal sonography revealed a concomitant ectopic pregnancy with large amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Cardiac activities of both the intrauterine and the ectopic fetuses were clearly visible on abdominal ultrasound. Emergency laparoscopy confirmed intraabdominal hemorrhage and rupture of the left fallopian tube. The laparoscopic salpingectomy did not affect the ongoing intrauterine pregnancy. The woman subsequently delivered a healthy infant. CONCLUSION - Though heterotopic pregnancy especially without previous ovarian hyperstimulation is extremely rare. The confirmation of an intrauterine pregnancy does not exclude a co-existing ectopic pregnancy as well as in case of extrauterine pregnancy the simultaneous presence of an intrauterine pregnancy must be considered.]

Hungarian Radiology

APRIL 20, 2003

[Treatment of ureter stenosis of the transplanted kidney using invasive radiological methods]

DOROS Attila, WESZELITS Viola, PUHL Mária, RUSZ András, JANSEN Judit

[INTRODUCTION - Stenosis, occlusion and necrosis of the ureter after kidney transplantation occur in 2-13%. The therapeutic choices are surgery or minimally invasive endourological and percutaneous procedures. We analysed our therapeutic plan and results using percutaneous dilatation and stenting. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The patients after kidney transplantation are regularly examined by ultrasound. In cases of suspected obstruction we perform scintigraphy and CT-urography, and if indicated, we place percutaneous nephrostomy. Between July of 2000 and September of 2002, 15 stenosis in 14 patients were dilated and stented percutaneously. RESULTS - We found one restenosis after 6 months due to compression. This patient underwent surgery, but after the operation another stenosis has developed. We treated it percutaneously. One nephrectomy had to be performed due to serious infection. In one patient stent migration occured and surgical intervention was performed. 12 patients have free urine passage and good kidney function as a result of percutaneous therapy. CONCLUSION - We have good results with percutaneous ureter dilatation and stenting, but our follow-up time (31 months) must be longer for the evaluation of long-term results. The percutaneous treatment can partly replace endourological and surgical methods or can be combined with each other.]