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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2021


[Consensus statement of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenic Society about the therapy of adult SMA patients]

BOCZÁN Judit, KLIVÉNYI Péter, KÁLMÁN Bernadette, SZÉLL Márta, KARCAGI Veronika, ZÁDORI Dénes, MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[Background – Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neuromuscular disorder resulting in a loss of lower motoneurons. Recently, new disease-modifying treatments (two drugs for splicing modification of SMN2 and one for SMN1 gene replacement) have become available. Purpose – The new drugs change the progression of SMA with neonatal and childhood onset. Increasing amount of data are available about the effects of these drugs in adult patients with SMA. In this article, we summarize the available data of new SMA therapies in adult patients. Methods – Members of the Executive Committee of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenetic Society surveyed the literature for palliative treatments, randomized controlled trials, and retrospective and prospective studies using disease modifying therapies in adult patients with SMA. Patients – We evaluated the outcomes of studies focused on treatments of adult patients mainly with SMA II and III. In this paper, we present our consensus statement in nine points covering palliative care, technical, medical and safety considerations, patient selection, and long-term monitoring of adult patients with SMA. This consensus statement aims to support the most efficient management of adult patients with SMA, and provides information about treatment efficacy and safety to be considered during personalized therapy. It also highlights open questions needed to be answered in future. Using this recommendation in clinical practice can result in optimization of therapy.]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 10, 2019

[Metals and cancer]

VETLÉNYI Enikő, RÁCZ Gergely

[We often tend to forget about our environment when looking for the origin of a disease. Inhaled air, drinking water and food, substances in contact with the skin all have an effect on the human body. Metals are indispensable parts of our everyday lives, their mining, processing and use cause a continuous exposure to them. Metal exert their effects on the body in various ways. Many of them are essential for maintaining homeostasis, but excessive or harmful metal intake can lead to health damage, including tumour formation through multiple attack points. Metals substitute each other during different transport processes and in the structure of proteins, they cause oxidative stress and bind to DNA, thereby damaging it. Applying them appropriately, the proapoptotic effect of the metal compounds is brought to the fore, thus becoming a therapeutic tool for tumours. Nowadays, platinum(II) compounds are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents and there are many ongoing studies to fi nd metal compounds with an ideal therapeutic and side-effect profi le. The aims of this article were to draw the attention to the dangers of metals in relation to cancer and to highlight their diverse application possibilities in current and future cancer therapy and diagnostics.]

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 28, 2020

[Neoadjuvant and palliative drug therapy for bladder cancer]


[The survival of patients with muscle-invasive localized bladder cancer is more favorable if they receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy before or after cystectomy. Based on the meta-analyses, in case of neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the 5-year survival benefi t is 5-16%. The outcome is even more favorable in case of patients who respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pathological complete remission rate 12–50%). More than 3 months delay of cystectomy does not signifi cantly reduce the survival if chemotherapy is performed before the operation. Results of adjuvant phase III studies and meta-analyses are not so unambiguous as neoadjuvant data, but chemotherapy seems to infl uence favorably PD-L1 expression the survival, especially in case of pT3/4 and/or N+ (and high grade or margin positivity) cases. According to the recent publications, outcome data of patients have been effective in case of progression after platinum therapy, in or after second-line and in fi rst-line therapies for cisplatin ineligible, PD-L1 positive patients, respectively. Survival and tumor response data are very promising; in particular stages, they seem to be more effective than the previously administered chemotherapies. Current and ongoing trials are investigating the combinations of new remedies with other immunotherapeutic agents or chemotherapies as well as trying to identify biomarkers in order to further increase effectiveness.]

Hypertension and nephrology

OCTOBER 23, 2019

[Blood pressure management for stroke prevention and in the acute stroke. The new guideline of European Society of Hypertension (ESH, 2018), European Society of Cardiology and Hungarian Society of Hypertension (HSH, 2018)]

JENEI Zoltán

[Hypertension is the leading modifiable risk factor for stroke. Its prevalence amongst stroke patient is about 60-70% and the benefit of blood pressure (BP) lowering therapy on stroke risk reduction is well established. However the optimal BP targets for preventing stroke and reducing stroke consequences have been controversial. The new European (ESC/ESH) and Hungarian (HSH) hypertension guideline published in 2018 highlighted the primary and secondary prevention of stroke and the BP management in the acute stroke care as well. According results from ACCORD, SPRINT, HOPE-3, and other metaanalysis the systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering < 120 mmHg has not favourable effect, thus in hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg. In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). In patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage careful acute BP lowering with iv. therapy, to <180 mmHg should be considered only in case of SBP ≥ 220 mmHg (IIaB). In patients with acute ischaemic stroke who are eligible for iv. thrombolysis, BP should be carefully lowered and maintained to < 180/105 mmHg for at least the first 24 h after thrombolysis (IIaB). If the patient is not eli gible for lysis and BP ≤ 220/110 mmHg, routine BP lowering drug therapy is not recommended inside 48-72 h (IA). In patients with markedly elevated BP > 220/110 mmHg who do not receive fibrinolysis, drug therapy may be considered, based on clinical judgement, to reduce BP by 15% during the first 24 h after the stroke onset (IIbC). After 72 h of acute stroke in case of hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg (IIaB). In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). If BP < 140/90 mmHg after stroke, the BP lowering should be considered (IIbA). It is recommended to initiate an antihypertensive treatment with combination, preferably single pill combination of renin-angiotensin system blockers plus a calcium channel blocker and/or a thiazide like diuretics (IA). Lowering SBP < 120 mmHg is not recommended due to advers events regardless of age and type of stroke either in primary or secondary stroke prevention.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 01, 2000

[The treatment of life-threathening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in coronary artery disease - Antiarrhythmic drug or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator?]


[Sudden cardiac death due to sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias accounts for approximately 50% of all cardiovascular deaths. From the major therapeutic options currently available, antiarrhythmic drug therapy and implantation of automatic car dioverter-defibrillators could be applied to the great majority of patients. Both early observations on automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator devices and more recent prospective, randomized, multicenter trials with long-term outcome data uniformly document sudden cardiac death recurrence rates of 1% to 2% annually, compared with recurrences rates of 15% to 25% without the device. There is now compelling evidence from studies suggesing that these devices are superior to antiarrhythmic drugs (Class I and III), both in terms of effectivity and life-saving effects. The implantation of the automatic cardioverter-defibrillator device is currently the first choice therapy for cardiac arrest survivors based on the AHA/ACC guideline (1998), and has to be considered in each case. In the future, the common, hybride treatment with antiarrhythmic device and drugs is expected. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 01, 2000

[Metabolic syndrome - metabolic risk factors]


[Since abdominal type obesity, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome were classified as primary coronary risk factors beside hypercholesterolaemia and smoking, five out of six of the most significant risk factors are regarded of metabolic origin. Simultaneous occurrence of these factors are far more frequent in the population. The composition and background of this syndrome were subject of numerous analyses and classification from syndrome-X to metabolic syndrome. Reaven finds insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinism as the primary cause, while Matsuzava et al regards visceral type obesity (visceral fat syndrome), and Björntrop views the increase in sympathetic tone (civilization syndrome) as fundamental. In the diagnostics and therapy of the metabolic syndrome we should consider all factors mentioned above. We have to establish the presence of three or more classic risk factors for a firm diagnosis. In the therapy, decreasing the body weight with diet and exercise is crucial, with adjuvant drug therapy of antidiabetics, insulinsensitizers, lipid lowering agents and antihypertensives, as needed. ]

Clinical Oncology

DECEMBER 30, 2019

[Sequential therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma]


[The incidence of renal carcinoma is on the rise in developed countries, with the tumor being among the 10 most common malignancies. However, the survival of patients with irresecable renal carcinoma has improved signifi cantly in recent years, mainly due to signifi cant advances in oncology treatment. The use of agents acting on the VEGF and mTOR signaling pathways is widespread and has become a standard clinical practice in fi rst and later line therapy. Recent clinical trials have provided many new drugs with new targets (cMET and AXL, FGFR, PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4) and combinations thereof, and have completely redrawn the treatment landscape of metastatic renal carcinoma and signifi cantly improved clinical results. This report reviews data on targeted drug therapy of renal cell carcinoma and discusses the therapeutic position of various drugs and combinations to our knowledge.]

Hypertension and nephrology

JUNE 24, 2021

[The main directions of treatment of obesity are described in VIII. Hungarian In the light of the Cardiovascular Consensus Conference]


[The treatment of obesity is a complex process, the elements of which are lifestyle change (diet and exercise), psychic driving, medication and need in case of surgical treatment. The Hungarian Society of Obesitology and Movement Therapy the first half year of the weight loss program is low in carbs and elevated suggests a protein-rich diet. When designing physical activity, dynamic, aerobic (eg walking, walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, etc.) are recommended. In drug therapy, orlistat, naltrexone / bupropion, is fixed combination and liraglutide play a role. Bariatric surgery they are currently most effective in the short- and long-term treatment of obesity.]

Hypertension and nephrology

MAY 10, 2019

[Serum uric acid level in hypertension. Domestic experience based on the data of the Hungarian Hypertonia Register 2011., 2013., 2015. Part I. Introduction. Patients and methods. Basic data]


[Worldwide, screening in the general population detects an increase in serum uric acid levels in both sexes. This growth trend is also valid for hypertension. Authors studied the incidence of serum uric acid levels and its correlation with age, risk factors, anthropological, metabolic characteristics, blood pressure, blood pressure target, organ damage, age-related co-morbidity and drug therapy in 47,372 hypertensive patients (22,688 males, 24,684 women). In the first part of their analysis they present the method of analysis and the basic correlations. The uric acid level is higher in men than in women, with the advancement of age increasing. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure are associated with increases in serum uric acid levels, with a tendency for systolic pressure to be significantly higher. For ladies, the rising trend is smaller and always lower in uric acid values. The uric acid value is higher in patients with the non-target blood pressure. The presence of co-morbidity significantly increases serum uric acid levels.]

Hypertension and nephrology

OCTOBER 20, 2018

[The importance of recognition and proper treatment of hypertension and the maintenance of adherence in hypertension care]

NEMCSIK János, PÁLL Dénes, JÁRAI Zoltán

[Hypertension is the leading cause of death and disability-adjusted life years. In the United States hypertension accounts for more cardiovascular (CV) deaths than any other modifiable CV disease risk factor and was second only to cigarette smoking as a preventable cause of death for any reason. In our country the situation is similar. In Hungary the number of subjects with hypertension is approximately 3.5 million and this high prevalence contributes markedly to the poor Hungarian CV morbidity and mortality figures. The recognition of hypertension, the initiation of drug therapy and the long-term follow- up of the patients is mainly the task of primary care. Besides that it inheres high responsibility, this is also a grateful commitment, as hypertension in most of the cases can be treated properly with lifestyle-changes and medications leading to a marked decrease of CV complications, especially stroke. In our review article we would like to focus on the high prevalence of hypertension worldwide as well as in our country, the exact implementation of screening, the risk reduction potential of the proper treatment and the importance of the long-term maintenance of treatment adherence.]