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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

AUGUST 30, 2019

[The effect of whole body electrostimulation for the pelvic floor muscles ]

ARANYNÉ Molnár Tímea, NAGY Edit, DOMJÁN Andrea, FEKETE Zoltán, SURÁNYI Andrea, BÓDIS József

[The aim of the study: Few studies research the effects of trunk stabilizer muscle strengthening on pelvic floor dysfunctions. We assessed a new core strengthening method on the pelvic floor muscles. Material and method: Female patient (70 years) with stressincontinence and low back pain received the Whole Body Electric Muscle Stimulation for 10 weeks (2x25 minutes/week). The EMG (for the conditioning ability of pelvic floor muscle such as maximal isometric contraction, dynamic endurance and relaxation values), urodynamic assessment, introitus and the transabdominal ultrasound were used before and after training. Results: The patient’s the stressincontinence, low back pain and the conditioning ability of pelvic floor muscles improved. The urodynamic and ultrasounds values showed improvement in functions of the bladder neck and deep abdominal muscle. Conclusion: This method would increase the trunk stabilization and pelvic floor muscle strength of the eldery age group, which might decrease the prevalence of urinary incontinence.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2020

Neurocognitive functions in patients with hepatitis C infection

HORVÁTH Gergely, KELETI Teodóra, MAKARA Mihály, UNGVARI S Gabor, GAZDAG Gábor

Background - With improving treatment options, more attention is being paid to the neurocognitive symptoms related to hepatitis C infection (HCI). While HCI-related neurocognitive impairments are frequently subclinical, they can influence patients’ quality of life and fitness to work. Objective - The aim of this study was to assess HCI patients’ neurocognitive functions and explore the correlations between disease variables and neurocognitive symptoms. Method - The study was conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. All patients with HCI were included in the study who were registered at the Hepatology Outpatient Clinic of Szent István and Szent László Hospitals, met inclusion criteria and volunteered to participate. Patients’ sociodemographic data and medical history were recorded in a questionnaire designed for the study. The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to detect depressive symptoms. Six computerized tests were used to evaluate patients’ neuropsychological functions. Results - Sixty patients participated in the study. In comparison with general population standards, patients demonstrated poorer performance in several neurocognitive tests. Neuropsychological performance was correlated with age, sex, length of time since HCI diagnosis, Fibroscan score and the number of previous antiviral treatments. Conclusions - The study’s main finding is that compared to general population standards, patients with hepatitis C virus-related disease exhibit impaired neuropsychological functioning in visuomotor and visuospatial functions, working memory, executive functions, and reaction time. Executive functions and reaction time were the most sensitive indicators for the length and severity of disease. Deterioration in these functions has a major negative effect on work performance particularly in certain occupations.

Lege Artis Medicinae

JANUARY 20, 2020

[Personality development in East and West, and some clinical implications ]

PUREBL György

[Exploring human personality focused mainly on trait and state markers of behaviour so far. Nevertheless, the concept of the universal, culture-independent model of personality carries more disturbing difficulties: hardly understandable inter-cultural conflicts, culture-related mental disorders and scientific experiences with unexpected outcomes. It can be hypothesized, that beside personality concept represented by the Euro-Atlantic civilisation and mainstream psychology there is an alternative concept of personality. Opposed to the independent, autonomous ego concept of individualistic cultures, collectivistic (primarily far-eastern) cultures are providing an interdependent model. According to this model, the core element of personality are determined rather by social embedding instead of the person’s own characteristics, which are secondary to the personal traits and characteristics. This study attempts to briefly outline the concept of interdependent personality, with some illustrative clinical examples. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

APRIL 30, 2019

Socioeconomic status and health status: mortality and morbidity

DABES Meshik Alphonsus, PAPP Katalin

There is no situation that the individual’s socioeconomic status (SES) play a huge role in the individual’s health outcomes and the health care they receive. Socioeconomic status is mostly measured by education, income and occupation. People of higher SES tend to have more knowledge on health and health behaviours, and that determined their accessibility, acceptability and affordability of health care services. Arpey et al 2017, opined that people of lower SES are more likely to have worse self-reported health, lower life expectancy, and suffer from more chronic conditions when compared with those of higher SES. In this study, I want to analyse the relationship between socioeconomic status and health status considering mortality and morbidity among people of lower SES and higher SES using current literatures review. Base on this study it is clearly understood that there is a clear disparity in health status between lower socioeconomic status and higher socioeconomic status population. This health inequality is as a result of differences in economic, social and cultural factors. Health inequalities is avoidable and unfair because it is as a result of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health such as, unequal opportunities in education and/or employment which are the core determinants of persons socioeconomic status. Therefore, in order to reduce the inequality in health among higher and lower SES group, there should be equal distribution and opportunity for both groups to access education and employment.

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2019

Effects of CHADS2 score, echocardiographic and haematologic parameters on stroke severity and prognosis in patients with stroke due to nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

AYNACI Ozer, TEKATAS Aslan, AYNACI Gülden, KEHAYA Sezgin, UTKU Ufuk

Introduction - The aim of this study is to evaluate utility of CHADS2 score to estimate stroke severity and prognosis in patients with ischemic stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in addition to evaluate effects of hematologic and echocardiographic findings on stroke severity and prognosis. Methods - This prospective study included 156 ischemic stroke cases due to non-valvular AF in neurology ward of Trakya University Medical School between March 2013-March 2015. National Institute of Health Stroke (NIHS) score was used to evaluate severity of stroke at admission. Carotid and vertebral Doppler ultrasonography findings, brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cases were evaluated. Left atrial diameter and ejection fraction (EF) values were measured. CHADS2 score was calculated. Modified Rankin Scale was used to rate the degree of dependence. Effects of age and sex of the patients, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on CHADS2, NIHS, and mRS were evaluated. Results - In patients with age ≥75, mean NIHS score was 3.3 points and mean mRS score was 1.02 points higher, than in patient below 75 years of age. Compared with the mild risk group, cases in the high risk group had older age, higher serum D-dimer, fibrinogen and CRP levels and lower EF. A positive relation was detected between stroke severity and Hemorrhagic Transformation (HT), previous CVD history, and presence of CHF. A significant association was found between increased stroke severity and Early Neurological Deterioration (END) development. Older age, higher serum fibrinogen, D-dimer, CRP and lower EF values were associated with poor prognosis. History of CVD and presence of CHF were associated with poor prognosis. END development was found to be associated with poor prognosis. In the high-risk group, 30.3% (n = 33) had END. Among those in the high-risk group according to the CHADS2 score, END development rate was found to be significantly higher than in the moderate risk group (p <0.05). There was a strong positive correlation between CHADS2 and NIHS scores. mRS score increased with increasing CHADS2 score and there was a strong correlation between them. Effect of stroke severity on prognosis was assessed and a positive correlation was found between NIHS score and mRS value. Discussion - Our study demonstrated the importance of CHADS2 score, haemostatic activation and echocardiographic findings to assess stroke severity and prognosis. Knowing factors which affect stroke severity and prognosis in patients with ischemic stroke may be directive to decide primary prevention and stroke management.

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 30, 2019

Relationship between Status Epilepticus Severity Score and etiology in adult NCSE patients

GENC Fatma, ERDAL Abidin, AKCA Gizem, KARACAY Ertan, GÖKSU Özaydın Eylem, KUTLU Gülnihal, GÖMCELI Bicer Yasemin

Purpose - Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a heterogeneous, severe neurological disorder of different etiologies. In this study, the outcomes of NCSE episodes was assessed in a large series of adult patients. Our objective was to evaluate relationship between Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and etiology and the role of etiological factors on predicting the outcomes. Method - In this retrospective study, the medical records of 95 patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with NCSE between June 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed. Their treatment and follow-up for NCSE was performed at the Epilepsy Unit in Department of Neurology, Antalya Research and Training Hospital. Etiological factors thought to be responsible for NCSE episodes as well as the prognostic data were retrieved. The etiological factors were classified into three groups as those with a known history of epilepsy (Group 1), primary neurological disorder (Group 2), or systemic/unknown etiology (Group 3). STESS was retrospectively applied to patients. Results - There were 95 participants, 59 of whom were female. Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 consisted of 11 (7 female), 54 (33 female), and 30 (19 female) patients, respectively. Of the 18 total deaths, 12 occurred in Group 2, and 6 in Group 3. The negative predictive value for a STESS score of ≤ 2 was 93.88% (+LR 2.05 95% CI: 1.44-2.9 and -LR 0.3 95% CI 0.10-0.84 ) in the overall study group. While the corresponding values for Group 1 (patients with epilepsy), Group 2 (patients with primary neurological disorder), and group 3 (patients with systemic or unknown etiology) were 100%, 92.59% (+LR 2.06 95%CI: 1.32-3.21 and -LR 0.28 95% CI 0.08-1.02 ) 83.33% (+LR 1.14 95%CI: 0.59-2.9 and -LR 0.80 95% CI 0.23-2.73). Conclusions - This study included the one of the largest patients series ever reported in whom STESS, a clinical scoring system proposed for use in patients with status epilepticus, has been implemented. Although STESS appeared to be quite useful for predicting a favorable outcome in NCSE patients with epilepsy and primary neurological disorders, its predictive value in patients with systemic or unknown etiology was lower. Further prospective studies including larger NCSE samples are warranted.

Hypertension and nephrology

MAY 10, 2019

[Diabetology in dialysis]

MÁCSAI Emília, HALMAI Richárd, NEMERE Éva, BRASNYÓ Pál, KISS István

[According to epidemiological data, the number of diabetic patients requiring dialysis is increasing. Burnt-out diabetes, new onset diabetes during chronic dialysis treatment and new onset diabetes after transplantation diabetes are new types of diabetes compared to the traditional division forms. It is utmost important to evaluate education ability and acceptance the core values of lifestyle changes. Clear guidelines for oral anti-diabetic and insulin therapy have not yet been developed since this group of patients did not participate in previous major surveys. In order to formulate individualized therapeutic recommendations, it is imperative to perform regular glucose self-monitoring, which is also the cornerstone of solving unexpected situations. Both in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, special considerations should be applied to the diabetic patient group, this review focuses on the current understanding of available relevant knowledge and summarizes presumably extrarenal diabetic complications as well.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2019

EEG-based connectivity in patients with partial seizures with and without generalization

DÖMÖTÖR Johanna, CLEMENS Béla, EMRI Miklós, PUSKÁS Szilvia, FEKETE István

Objective - to investigate the neurophysiological basis of secondary generalization of partial epileptic seizures. Patients and methods - inter-ictal, resting-state EEG functional connectivity (EEGfC) was evaluated and compared: patients with exclusively simple partial seizures (sp group) were compared to patients with simple partial and secondary generalized seizures (spsg group); patients with exclusively complex partial seizures (cp group) were compared to patients with cp and secondary generalized seizures (cpsg group); the collapsed sp+cp group (spcp) was compared to those who had exclusively secondary generalized seizures (sg group). EEGfC was computed from 21-channel waking EEG. 3 minutes of waking EEG background activity was analyzed by the LORETA Source Correlation (LSC) software. Current source density time series were computed for 23 pre-defined cortical regions (ROI) in each hemisphere, for the 1-25 Hz very narrow bands (1 Hz bandwidth). Thereafter Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between all pairs of ROI time series in the same hemisphere. Z-scored correlation coefficients were compared at the group level (t-tests and correction for multiple comparisons by local false discovery rate, FDR). Results - Statistically significant (corrected p<0.05) EEGfC differences emerged at specific frequencies (spsg > sg; cpsg > cp), and at many frequencies (sg > spcp). The findings indicated increased coupling between motor cortices and several non-motor areas in patients with partial and sg seizures as compared to patients with partial seizures and no sg seizures. Further findings suggested increased coupling between medial parietal-occipital areas (structural core of the cortex) and lateral hemispheric areas. Conclusion - increased inter-ictal EEGfC is associated with habitual occurrence of secondary generalized seizures.

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2018

Anterior cerebral artery infarcts; two years follow-up study

LÜTFÜ Hanoglu, ELMIR Khanmammadov, SEMA Demirci, ÜMMÜHAN Altin, DURSUN Kirbaş, TAHA Hanoglu, BURAK Yulug

Objectives – Anterior cerebral infarct (ACA) infarcts are reported very rare that is due to the compensatory collateral circulation provided by the anterior communicating artery. There are very few studies reporting the long-term follow-up results of ACA infarcts regarding their aetiology, clinical features and prognosis. Most studies reported in the literature vary between several months to one year. Patients and methods – A total of 27 patients with ACA infarcts were registered (14 women and 13 men). The mean age of the patients was 68.5 (age range: 45–89 years). Results – Bilateral ACA infarcts were reported in four patients (14.8%), right ACA infarct in 11 (40%) patients and left ACA infarct in 12 patients (44%). During the initial examination 15 patients (55.5%) were found to have apathy, 13 patients (48%) had incontinence, nine patients (33.3%) had primitive reflexes, 11 patients (40.7%) had aphasia, while six patients (22.2%) were found to suffer from neglect. At the end of one-year follow-up, five patients (22.7%) were reported to have apathy, 6 patients (27.2%) had incontinence, one patient (4.5%) had primitive reflexes, while one patient (4.5%) was found to have permanent aphasia, and no patients was found to suffer from neglect. Conclusion – Here we present our clinical data regarding the aetiology, specific clinical characteristics (including the speech disorders) and prognosis of 27 patients with ACA infarcts during a relatively longer follow-up period (3 months – 30 months) in compared to previous literature. We show that there are differences in the etiological factors of ACA infarcts between the Asian and European communities. Regarding speech disorders which are frequently reported during ACA infarcts, our study results are in agreement with other studies suggesting that this clinical picture is more than a real aphasia and associated with general hypokinesia and reduction in psychomotor activity.

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2017

[Cardiovascular screening and risk stratification]

VÉRTES András

[Cardiovascular diseases are still leading cause of death in developed countries. A possible background, atherosclerosis, might appear even in childhood, and deteriorate during the years without any symptoms. The cardiovascular prevention is a complex activity, which can be observed in population or/and in individual level. The conventional screening means the assessment of higher cholesterol level, blood pressure or other risk factors in healthy population without symptoms. The point of clinical risk evaluation is to find patient with high cardiovascular risk and consequentially with the necessity of intensive preventive strategy. For the right cardiovascular screening and adequate evaluation of the risk, it is needed that the doctors who frequently meet with the population execute the above-mentioned risk assessment. Therefore doctors, nurses, and education for preventive aspect would is needed, as education is important to decrease cardiovascular mortality for those patients that were categorized as a high-risk group.]