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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

FEBRUARY 28, 2020

[Complication of the Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome]

KOMLÓSI Kálmánné, KISS Sarolta, FERENCZY Mónika, MÁTÉ-PÓHR Kitti, PAKAI Annamária

[In our research we compared whether pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome or the mothers who were healthy through pregnancy has a higher risk to develop high BMI, metabolic syndrome, preeclampsia, polyhydramnion and macrosomia. Our research is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. In the random sampling within the target group, the target group was diagnosed with PCOS (n=50) and the control group was mothers who had undergone uninterrupted pregnancy (n=50). The exclusion criterion is the coexistence of other endocrine disease that may affect the parameters under consideration, in addition to the control group the diagnosis of PCOS. With IBM SPSS for Windows 22.0, we applied two-sample T-test and Khi2 test (p<0.05). The BMI values ​​measured in the PCOS study group are higher than in the control group (p<0,05). Pregnant women with PCOS has a higher risk of developing high blood pressure, and high cholesterol (p<0,05). The difference between the two groups can not be considered significant for the development of proteinuria and oedema. Emphasis should be placed on PCOS gravid care, early detection of metabolic disturbances, accurate documentation, and elimination of complications and illnesses associated with the disease.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 10, 2020

[Recommendations of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for dyslipidaemia. Focused on: primary prevention]


[In 2019 the European Atherosclerosis So­ciety (EAS) and European Society of Car­dio­logy (ESC) renewed their dyslipidae­mia guidelines. The new version is more progressive than the previous ones. Thus, in the low-risk, not severely hy­per­choles­te­ro­lae­mic population cholesterol-lowering medication is also suggested. Except this low-risk group, atherogenic target values, e.g. for LDL-cholesterol, were reduced by an entire category, in some cases to the lowest one. If these goals cannot be achieved with statin-monotherapy, combined treatment is recommended generally by the cholesterol inhibitor ezetimib, and in some very high-risk cases also by innovative cholesterol lowering so-called PCSK9 inhibitor. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 20, 2020

[Thinking globally - the significance of the joint treatment of risk factors]


[Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension - as the key risk factors of ischemic heart disease - are strongly linked to the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. These risk factors are related to each other and half of the hypertensive patients have elevated cholesterol, as well. The recent European hypertension guidelines recommend statin treatment in dyslipidemic and/or subjects at high risk including diabetic or CKD-patients. Reaching blood pressure target if we can hold the patient under 1.8 mmol/l LDL-level results in 60% reduction of the risk of CAD and 17% reduction of stroke. This aim can only be reached if patients regularly take their prescribed medications although statinadherence is the poorest in our country. One of the main tools of improving adherence beyond education is the use of fix-dosed combination.]

Hypertension and nephrology

DECEMBER 12, 2019

[Predictive factors for ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease among hypertensive patients based on the data of the Hungarian Hypertension Registry 2011-2013-2015. Part I. Hypertensive population aged 35 to 64 years]

KÉKES Ede, PAKSY András, SZEGEDI János, JÁRAI Zoltán

[The association of hypertension with ischemic heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease is the greatest therapeutic challenge because these associations significantly increase mortality and deteriorate life expectancy. It is important for the clinician to clarify the predictive factors of each association for successful prevention or slowing the progression of diseases. According to the database of the Hungarian Hypertension Registry 2011-2013-2015, 11,137 men and 11,112 women with hypertension and comorbidities (CHD, diabetes, CKD) aged between 35 and 64 were analyzed for the purpose of assessing the predictive value of the traditional risk factors in co-morbidity. We analyzed the predictive weight of each variable with single- and multi-variable stepwise logistic regression, and reported Odds ratio (OR, odds ratio). In patients with hypertension aged 35-64 (male / female), the prevalence of CHD was 41.6% / 35.8%, diabetes 27.1% / 23% and KVB 16.2% / 33.8%, respectively. The chance of developing CHD is highest in hypertensive individuals (male/female) who have diabetes (OR 1.30/1.48), who are obese (OR 1.22/1.21), who smoke (OR 1.50/1.51), and whose blood pressure >140/90 mmHg (OR 1.23/1.29). The dominant predictive factors of type 2 diabetes are obesity (visceral obesity) (OR 1.46/1.49), low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.32/1.35), and high triglyceride levels (OR 1.20/1.42); in women the uric acid level also showed high odds ratio (OR 1.39). There is a significant chance of developing chronic kidney disease in hypertension in both sexes, if abnormal uric acid levels (OR 1.73/1.46) and inadequate treatment of high blood pressure (>140Hgmm SBP) (OR 1.43/1.19) are present. In women, the abnormal triglyceride level) also showed a high odd (OR 1.81).]

Hypertension and nephrology

SEPTEMBER 10, 2019

[Serum uric acid level in hypertension. Domestic experience based on the data of the Hungarian Hypertension Registry 2011., 2013. and 2015. Part III. - Relation of uric acid to clinical and laboratory characteristics]


[2013. and 2015, we examined the correlation between the serum uric acid level and blood pressure, target blood pressure, prevalence of ISH and other diseases associated to high blood pressure used trend analysis and linear regression in 22,668 hypertensive men (mean age 60.8 years) and 24,684 hypertensive women (mean age 64.1 years). We have extended the correlation analysis to metabolic factors (BMI, abdominal circumference, lipid profile, blood sugar) and kidney function. Significant correlation was found between SH level and systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as target blood pressure. There was a significant correlation between SH level and metabolic parameters (abdominal circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar) and in hyperuricemia the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher. As the level of SH increases, the prevalence of hypertension-related KVB, ISZB and diabetes have increased. The closest correlation between uric acid levels and chronic kidney disease was in women and between the uric acid levels and ischemic heart disease in men. ur analysis supports the international declaration that hyperuricemia is an independent cardiovascular, metabolic and renal risk factor.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 20, 2019

[The Good, the Bad and the Ugly ]


[Reading the title most of us (but not everyone) can recall from our memories the classic heroes of the movie of Sergio Leone and we can almost hear (or not?) the melody of Ennio Morricone. This sentence is full of strangeness, isn’t it? However it’s hardly at all sure that everyone had seen the movie (indeed certainly not) and the catching music is maybe elusive. Like or not we are related to classics of lipidology, as well. Most of the readers of this review of the three clinicians know much (but not everything!) of these topics but probably for some of them this paper will arise their further interest. We are going to separate the “inseparable”, only together functioning whole thing in order to build a model in our thinking regarding its operation. This is what we do with the scientific cognition. We are making models, simplifying indeed… (sometimes erroneously) proclaiming. Let’s throw out our (or at least try to do it) the stereotypes living inside us. Let’s talk about the “always” good HDL-cholesterol, the bad LDL-cholesterol and the ugly (or cruel) triglyceride, actually (and now the analogy is lost of the three key players of the classic western movie) about the other faces of the together ugly and bad lipoprotein(a) according to a lot of opinions! As everything is connected with everything in the human body and nothing is accidental - nothing can be only good, bad or ugly nor the Good, the Bad and the Ugly yet.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 20, 2019

[How many cardiovascular events can be avoided by a lipid lowering therapy based on preventive guidelines?]

MÁRK László

[The lipid lowering therapy became one of the most important elements in the cardiovascular prevention, yet it is not appropriately evaluated neither by the doctors, nor by the patients. The lipid goal attainment should to be improved according to Hungarian and international data. Using a recommendation guided lipid lowering therapy the most benefit can be expected in the patients at very high risk who alrea­dy had a cardiovascular event, where the LDL-cholesterol goal is 1.8 mmol/L. Calculating upon the data of 170000 patients of Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration a decrease of LDL-cholesterol level from 2.5 mmol/L to 1.8 in 100 patients in 10 years would avoid 3 myocardial infarctions, strokes or death, lowering that from 3.5 mmol/L to the goal would prevent these 3 events within 5 years. Using the traditional LDL-cholesterol lowering medication, high dose statin and ezetimibe, if the attitude of doctors and the compliance of patients would be ideal, the 1.8 mmol/L goal attainment rate would be over 80%. Unfortunately, up to now the reimbursed administration of ezetimibe in Hungary is still bound to a specialist’s recommendation, adding it to any dose of any statin an additional 20% LDL-cholesterol can be expected. The reimbursed administration of PCSK9-inhibitors is possible only based on a special request to National Health Insurance Fund. To achieve a better national cardiovascular morbidity and mortality the attitude of the doctors and the adherence of the patients to the lipid lowering therapy should be improved (it’s the goal of the present paper as well).]

Hypertension and nephrology

JUNE 20, 2019

[Hyperuricemia in hypertension. Domestic experience based on the data of the Hungarian Hypertonia Register 2011., 2013., 2015. Part II.]


[Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is frequent in hypertension and its prevalence is increasing. Authors studied the incidence of serum uric acid levels and its correlation with age, risk factors, anthropological, metabolic characteristics, blood pressure, blood pressure target, organ damage, age-related co-morbidity in 47,372 hypertensive patients (22,688 males, 24,694 women). In the second part of their analysis the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 13.8% in hypertensive men and 21.6% in women. The age, BMI, waist diameter, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and onset of hypertension, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, blood glucose and serum creatinine were slightly higher, but serum HDL cholesterol and eGFR were slightly lower in hyperuricemic hypertensive patients, independently of their gender. Among hypertension mediated organ damage ischemic and left ventricular hypertensive ECG alterations, mild chronic kidney disease and proteinuria, among hypertension associated diseases diabetes associated ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease associated diabetes and both ischemic and chronic kidney disease associated diabetes were significantly more frequent in hyperuricemic hypertensive patients.]